Ch01-Organization of the Human Body

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Powerpoint presentation "Introduction to Human Anatomy, Physiology, and Pathophysiology for Pharmacy Students

Transcript of Ch01-Organization of the Human Body

Chapter 1Organization of the Human Body

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Definitions

Anatomy: science that studies structure Physiology: science that studies body functions Anatomy (structure) determines physiology (functions)

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Levels of Organization

Chemical: atoms molecules Cellular: cells containing organelles

Basic unit of life 4 basic types: epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous

Tissue: groups of cells and surrounding material

Organ: group of tissues performing a commonfunction

System: group of organs with a common function Organism: contains all systems of an individual

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Levels of Organization

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Life Processes

Metabolism- the sum of all the chemical processes that occur in the body. Responsiveness - the bodys ability to detect and respond to changes. Movement - includes motion of the whole body, individual organs, single cells, and even tiny structures inside cells.

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Life Processes

Growth - is an increase in body size that results from an increase in the size of existing cells, an increase in the number of cells, or both. Differentiation - the development of a cell from an unspecialized to a specialized state. Reproduction - refers either to the formation of new cells for tissue growth, repair, or replacement, or to the production of a new individual.Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Autopsy

Postmortem examination Examination and dissection of a body to determine the cause of death when life processes have not been maintained adequately.

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Homeostasis

is the condition of equilibrium in the bodys internal environment due to the constant interaction of the bodys many regulatory processes. Maintaining a stable internal environment Dynamic process because of many changes Examples of variable factors

Body temperature, Blood pressure Water and nutrient levels

Maintained by feedback systemsCopyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Feedback sys. or Feedback loop

cycle of events in which the status of a body condition is monitored, evaluated, changed, remonitored, reevaluated, and so on. monitored variable, such as body temperature, blood pressure, or blood glucose level, is termed a controlled condition. three basic components of Feedback sys : receptor, control center, and an effector.Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Components of Homeostatic Mechanisms

Stimulus disrupts a controlled variable Receptor recognizes the change and sends message = input (typically by nerve pathways) to: Control Center that evaluates input and sends output to: Effector that attempts to change the altered variable

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Operation of Feedback System

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Negative Feedback Systems

reverses a change in a controlled condition Most homeostatic control mechanisms are negative feedback systems Negative means opposite (not bad) These systems reverse a change in the controlled variable, bringing it back to normal

Example: high blood pressure (BP) is detected and then lowered to normal BP

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Negative Feedback Systems

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Positive Feedback Systems

Few homeostatic control mechanisms are of this type These systems strengthen a change and must be shut down by an outside force. Examples:

Contractions of uterus cause even more contractions at child birth Hormonal control of ovulation Systems that control blood clotting

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Clinical Terms

Disorder: abnormality of structure/function Disease: specific illness characterized by signs and symptoms

Symptoms: subjective changes not observable from outside a person. Examples: pain, headache, nausea, anxiety Signs: observable or measurable changes. Examples: can be either anatomical, such as swelling or a rash, or physiological,such as fever, high blood pressure, or paralysis.

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Aging and Homeostasis

Normal process that:

Includes a progressive loss in the ability to maintain homeostasis (homeostatic imbalance) Affects all body systems Can be slowed down or minimized by healthy living

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Anatomical Terms

Precise use of language to define position, direction, and location in the body.

Anatomical position

Stands erect facing the observer, with head level and eyes facing forward, and palms facing forward

Common and anatomical terms Directional terms Planes and sections Body cavities

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Anatomical Position

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Directional Terms words that describe the position of one body part relative to another Superior - toward the head Inferior - away from the head Anterior (ventral) - nearer to or at the front of the body Posterior (dorsal) - nearer to or at the back of the body Medial nearer to the midline Lateral- farther from the midline Intermediate between two structuresCopyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Directional Terms

Ipsilateral -On the same side of the body as another structure Contralateral - On the opposite side of the body from another structure Proximal - Nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk; nearer to the origination of a structure Distal - Farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk; farther from the origination of a structure Superficial (external)-Toward or on the surface of the body Deep (internal)- Away from the surface of the body.Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Directional Terms

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Planes Through the Human Body

Planes - imaginary flat surfaces that pass through the body parts

Sagittal plane - a vertical plane that divides the body or an organ into right and left sides. midsagittal plane or a median plane - a plane passes through the midline of the body or an organ and divides it into equal right and left sides parasagittal plane - divides the body or an organ into unequal right and left sides

frontal or coronal - divides the body or an organinto anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions.Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Planes Through the Human Body

Transverse plane - divides the body or anorgan into superior and inferior portions.aka cross-sectional or horizontal plane

Oblique plane - passes through the body or anorgan at an oblique angle.

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Planes Through the Human Body

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Planes and Sections: BrainSection - is a cut of the body or one of its organs made along one of the planes

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Planes and Sections: Brain

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Planes and Sections: Brain

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Anatomical Terms

Body cavities - are spaces within the body that help protect, separate, and support internal organs.

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Anatomical Terms

Body cavities

Cranial (brain) and vertebral (spinal cord) Thoracic (chest cavity): pleural, pericardial, and mediastinal (region between lungs) Abdominopelvic (inferior to diaphragm):

AbdominalLarger; contains most abdominopelvic organs Subdivided into 9 regions or 4 quadrants

PelvicMore inferior and smaller Contains urinary bladder, lowest portions of digestive tract, and internal reproductive organsCopyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Anatomical Terms

Body cavities

Serous membranes are located in thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities

Functions: protect organs, reduce friction LayersVisceral layer covers organs Parietal layer lines cavity

Names:Pleural (covers lungs, lines thorax) Pericardial (covers heart, lines central part of thorax) Peritoneal (covers organs, lines abdominopelvic cavity)

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Body Cavities

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Body Cavities

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Anterior view of thoracic cavity

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Anterior View of Abdominopelvic cavity

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Abdominopelvic Cavity: 9 Regions

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Abdominopelvic Cavity: 9 Regions

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Abdominopelvic Cavity: 4 Quadrants

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Other body cavities

Oral (mouth) cavity, which contains the tongue and teeth Nasal cavity in the nose Orbital cavities (orbits), which contain the eyeballs Middle ear cavities which contain small bones Synovial cavities which are found in freely movable joints and contain synovial fluid

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

References

Tortora, G.J., & Derrickson, B. (2012). Principles of ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY. (13th ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken (NJ) Tortora, G.J., & Derrickson, B. (2009). Principles of ANATOMY & PHYSIOL