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  • 1. A Geographic Profile ofTHE MIDDLE EAST ANDNORTH AFRICAChapter 6

2. 6.1 Area and Population Middle East and North Africa Middle East is Eurocentric 21 Countries, Palestinian Territories of the West Bankand Gaza Strip, and the disputed Western Sahara Area of 5.6 million square miles Population of 503 million people (2011) Turkey, Iran & Egypt each have more than 70 million people People locate where water is abundant in this arid region Region on the whole is 62% urban High rate of population growth across region Many oil-rich countries of the Gulf region havemore foreigners than citizens living in them 3. Middle East and North Africa 4. Comparison in Area and LatitudeMiddle East & North Africa vs. Conterminous U.S. 5. Population Distribution 6. Population Cartogram 7. 6.2 Physical Geography & Human Adaptations Margins of region are oceans, seas, highmountains, and deserts Atlantic Ocean to the west Sahara to the south Mediterranean, Black, and Caspian Seas to the north Hindu Kush and Baluchistan Desert to the east Land composed of arid plains and plateaus Large areas of rugged mountains Isolated seas of sand 8. 6.2.1 Region of Stark Geographic Contrasts Climate Aridity 75 percent of region receives < 10 of annual precipitation Higher precipitation around Mediterranean or up at elevation Strategies of drought avoidance and drought endurance Temperature Large daily and seasonal ranges Very hot days and surprisingly cool nights Summer relocation of government in Saudi Arabia Tectonic Processes Collision zones have resulted in mountain building Frequent earthquakes for places like Turkey, Iran,and Afghanistan 9. Climate Types 10. Biome Types 11. Great Sand Sea in Egypt 12. Land Use 13. The Treasury at Petra, Jordan 14. Pontic Mountains in Turkey 15. Jordan Rift Valley From Space 16. Taurus Mountains of Turkey 17. Solar Boat of King Cheops 18. 6.2.2 Villager, Pastoral Nomad, Urbanite Middle Eastern Ecological Trilogy Villagers Subsistence farmers of rural areas where dry farmingor irrigation is possible Pastoral Nomads Desert peoples who migrate through arid lands withlivestock, following rainfall and vegetation patterns Urbanites Inhabitants of large towns and cities, generally locatednear bountiful water sources 19. The Ecological Trilogy 20. 6.2.3 The Village Way of Life Historically, agricultural villagers represented themajority populations in the region Villages located near reliable water sources with cultivablelands nearby Production and consumption focus on a staple grain Reliance on nomads for pastoral produce Effects of exposure to outside influence Introduction of cash crops Improved and expanded irrigation Modern technology Rural-to-Urban Migration 21. 6.2.4 The Pastoral Nomadic Way of Life Pastoral Nomadism Emerged as offshoot of village agricultural way of life Vertical Migration in mountainous areas Horizontal Migration in flatter expanses Sedentarization (settling down) is a recent trend Nomads in region number estimated 5 to 13 million Identified by their tribe, not be their nationality 22. 6.2.5 The Urban Way of Life The city was the final component toemerge in the ecological trilogy Mesopotamia, 4000 B.C.E. Egypt, 3000 B.C.E. Medina (classic Islamic city) High defensive wall Congregational mosque Administrative and educational complex Bazaar or Suq (Commercial Zone) Residential areas based on ethnicity,not income Rural-to-Urban Migration New modern urban development inoil-rich countries 23. Model of the Medina 24. Bazaar in Cairo, Egypt 25. Artificial Islands in Dubai, UAE 26. 6.3 Cultural & Historical Geographies Egypt and Mesopotamia are among theworlds great culture hearths Language Families Afro-Asiatic Family Examples: Semitic (Arabic & Hebrew), Berber, and Bedawi Altaic Family (Turkic) Caucasian Family Indo-European Family (Farsi and Kurdish) Nilo-Saharan Family Religious Hearth Monotheistic faiths of Judaism, Christianity & Islam 27. Languages of the Middle East & North Africa 28. Religions of the Middle East & North Africa 29. 6.3.1 The Promised Land of the Jews Judaism First significant monotheistic faith Practiced today by 14 million worldwide Torah is the Jewish holy scripture Unlike Christianity, Jesus not seen as a savior Ethnic, not proselytizing religion Western Wall (Wailing Wall to Jews) in Jerusalem The most sacred site in the world accessible to Jews 30. Holy Places in Jerusalem 31. 6.3.2Christianity: Death & Resurrection in Jerusalem Christianity Offshoot of Judaism that emerged in Palestine Jesus Christ Born in Bethlehem around 4 B.C.E. His teachings denied validity of many Jewishdoctrines and protesters called for his death Jesus was put on trial, was found guilty of being aclaimant to Jewish kingship, and was crucified Christians believe Christ was resurrected from thedead two days later and ascended into heaven Seldom has Christianity been majority religion inthe land where it was born Crusades (11th 14th centuries) 32. Church of the Holy Sepulcher 33. 6.3.3 The Message of Islam Islam Monotheistic faith Dominant religion by far in Middle East & North Africa Prophet was Muhammad, who was from Mecca Quran is the holy book of Islam Five Pillars of Islam Profession of the faith Prayer five times daily toward Mecca Almsgiving Fasting during Ramadan Hajj, a pilgrimage to Mecca (Islams holiest city) 34. Great Mosque in Mecca 35. 6.4 Economic Geography Oil dominates the regions economic geography Large reserves Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Aim of taking joint action to demand higher profits Other resources include: Remittances Earned income sent home by guest workers Revenues from ship traffic through Suez Canal Exports of cotton, rice, and other commercial crops 36. 6.5 Geopolitical Issues Historically, region has been a geographic crossroads Geopolitical Interests Narrow Waterways Access to Oil Access to Freshwater Terrorism 37. 6.5.1 Chokepoints Chokepoints Strategic narrow passageways on land or sea that maybe easily closed off by force or even the threat of force ExamplesLinks: Suez CanalMediterranean & Red Seas Strait of Tiran Gulf of Aqaba & Red Sea Strait of HormuzPersian Gulf & Arabian Sea Bab el-Mandeb Red Sea & Indian Ocean BosporusMediterranean & Black Seas Dardanelles Mediterranean & Black Seas Strait of Gibraltar Mediterranean Sea &Atlantic Ocean 38. Chokepoints 39. History of War in the Suez Canal Zone 40. 6.5.2 Access to Oil Regions oil is marketed primarily in westernEurope and Japan American Interest in Oil Support for Israel while courting Israels oil-rich enemies Carter Doctrine U.S. would use any means necessary to defend its vitalinterests (i.e., Maintaining a secure supply of Gulf oil) Gulf War U.S. led coalition of Western and Arab allies against Iraq U.S. Invasion of Iraq in 2003 About weapons of mass destruction or control of oil? 41. 6.5.3 Access to Freshwater Hydropolitics 90 percent of usable freshwater in the region crossesone or more international borders Role of water in Palestinian-Israeli conflict Water is a critical issue blocking a peace treatybetween Israel and Syria Nile Water Agreement Signed by 10 countries in 1926 Guaranteed Egyptian access to water Many countries have defied the treaty in recent years Upstream country is usually able to maximize itswater use at expense of a downstream country 42. Water Developments in the Nile Basin 43. Waterfall on Tigris River in Turkey 44. 6.5.4 Terrorism Terrorists pursued by U.S. are Islamist militants Islamist Groups Hizbullah Hamas Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) Al-Qaida 1998 bombings of U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania 2000 bombing of American destroyer U.S.S. Cole in Yemen September 11, 2001 - World Trade Center attacks Tiny minority of Muslims have carried out terroristactions that the great majority of Muslimscondemned 45. 6.6.1Regional Issues and Landscapes: Israel and Palestine Israel and Palestine (Arab-Israeli Conflict) One of the worlds most intractable disputes Primarily a conflict over ownership of land, but has far-reaching repercussions throughout the rest of the world According to the UN, this conflict is the largest forcebehind global tensions Resolution of this conflict would probably result in a morepeaceful world 46. The Middle East and North Africa in 1920The victorious allies of World War I carved up the Middle Eastamong themselves. Growing difficulties of administration would drive them from the region within a few decades. 47. 6.6.1Regional Issues and Landscapes: Israel and Palestine (continued) The Arab-Israeli Conflict and Political Geography Modern state of Israel carved from lands that have beenundetermined since the end of WWI Area was divided between British and French after defeatof Ottoman Turks in WWI British withdrew in 1947, leaving theUN to determine the regions future UN responded with a 2-state solution Arab State (Palestine) Jewish State (Israel) Plan was flawed, leaving eachside feeling vulnerable 48. 6.6.1 Regional Issues and Landscapes:Israel and Palestine (continued) Israel Declared itself into existence in May 1948 Surrounding areas mobilized vs. Israel, but were defeated Through the defeat, Israel acquired its pre-1967 borders Boundary separating Israel from the West Bank laterbecame known as the Green Line Important wars between Israel and Palestine: 1948-1949 Arab-Israeli War The Six-Day War of 1967 The 1973 Arab-Israeli War Camp David Accords returned Sinai to Egypt United Nations Resolutions 242 and 338: Called on Israel to withdraw from the Occupied Territories 49. Palestinian Refugee Movements in 1948 and 1967 50. Zones of Control 51. 6.6.1 Regional Issues and Landscapes:Israel and Palestine (continued) On the Brink of Peace In 2000, President Clinton attempted to broker a histori