CERAMICS INDUSTRY, PORTLAND CEMENT, and GLASS INDUSTRIES

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CERAMIC INDUSTRIES, PORTLAND CEMENTS, & GLASS INDUSTRIESJanine Bernadette A. Pontanar BS Chemistry III Report in Industrial Chemistry Lecture

Transcript of CERAMICS INDUSTRY, PORTLAND CEMENT, and GLASS INDUSTRIES

CERAMIC INDUSTRIES, PORTLAND CEMENTS, & GLASS INDUSTRIESJanine Bernadette A. Pontanar BS Chemistry III Report in Industrial Chemistry Lec

OUTLINE..o Chapter 9 CERAMIC INDUSTRIES o Chapter 10 PORTLAND CEMENTS, CALCIUM, & MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS o Chapter 11 GLASS INDUSTRIES

CHAPTER 9 CERAMIC INDUSTRIESOutline.. Introduction Types of Ceramic products Basic Raw materials Uses

CHAPTER 9 CERAMIC INDUSTRIESINTRODUCTION Ceramic industries Greek keramos, 'potter's clay'), originally the art of making pottery now the (clay products or silicates industries) science of manufacturing articles prepared from pliable, earthy materials that are made rigid by exposure to heat. Ceramic materials are nonmetallic, inorganic compounds primarily compounds of oxygen, but also compounds of carbon, nitrogen, boron, and silicon. Ceramic products withstand higher temperatures, resists greater pressures, have superior mechanical properties, posses mechanical properties, possess special electrical characteristics, and can protect against corrosive chemicals.

Pictures of some Ceramic products

CHAPTER 9 CERAMIC INDUSTRIESINTRODUCTION Types of ceramic products: 1. White wares China, earthenware, pottery, porcelain, stoneware, and vitreous ware 2. Refractories - like glass and steel building crucibles, gas fire radiant and kiln linings. 3. Enamels and enameled metal 4. Structural clay products bricks, face brick, terra cotta, sewer pipe, and drain tile 5. Specialized ceramic products

CHAPTER 9 CERAMIC INDUSTRIESINTRODUCTION 1. WHITE WARES - any of a broad class of ceramic products that are white to off-white in appearance and frequently contain a significant vitreous, or glassy, component. Including products as diverse as fine china dinnerware, lavatory sinks and toilets, dental implants, and spark-plug insulators, whitewares all depend for their utility upon a relatively small set of properties: imperviousness to fluids, low conductivity of electricity, chemical inertness, and an ability to be formed into complex shapes.

CHAPTER 9 CERAMIC INDUSTRIESINTRODUCTION 2. REFRACTORY material is one that retains its strength at high temperatures. ASTM C71 defines refractories as "non-metallic materials having those chemical and physical properties that make them applicable for structures, or as components of systems, that are exposed to environments above 1,000 F (811 K; 538 C)".[

CHAPTER 9 CERAMIC INDUSTRIESINTRODUCTION 3. ENAMELS & ENAMELED METAL or porcelain contains a large proportion of fluxes applied and fused to metals at moderate red heat. One of the applications of enamel is in gold, silver, and copper.

CHAPTER 9 CERAMIC INDUSTRIESINTRODUCTION 4. STRUCTURAL CLAY PRODUCTS

CHAPTER 9 CERAMIC INDUSTRIESINTRODUCTION 5. SPECIALIZED CERAMIC PRODUCTS CERAMIC COMPOSITES Cermets consist of an intimate mixture of ceramic and metallic components. They are used in linings for brakes and clutches because of the greater weight and higher speeds involved and also non-lubricating bearings in temperature range 370 oC-815 Oc

CHAPTER 9 CERAMIC INDUSTRIESINTRODUCTION Ceramic Fibers for resistance to thermal shock conditions and useful in hypothermal envi. It can be made to roving, yarn, cloth, braid, wicking, rope, % hollow sleeving. Also used for thermal insulation; for zone curtains in annealing surfaces, and for high-temperature-low-voltage wiring circuits of space and aircraft equipment. FERROELECTRIC AND FERROMAGNETIC CERAMICS most common is BaTiO3. Used in TV sets, computers, magnetic switches, wideband transformers, recorders, and memory devices such as FD, etc.

CHAPTER 9 CERAMIC INDUSTRIESINTRODUCTION PYROCERAM AND FOTOFORM are first manufactured as glass then converted to a ceramic with predominantly crystalline body.

CHAPTER 9 CERAMIC INDUSTRIESBASIC RAW MATERIALS Clay Feldspar Sand

CHAPTER 9 CERAMIC INDUSTRIESBASIC RAW MATERIALS Clay earth that is plastic, moldable when finely pulverized and wet; tenacious when dry; and that becomes permanently vitreous hard when baked or fired.

Clay extraction

CHAPTER 9 CERAMIC INDUSTRIESBASIC RAW MATERIALS important clay minerals: kaolinite (Al2O3.2SiO2.2H2O), montmorillonite (Mg,Ca)O.Al2O3.5SiO2.nH2O, and illite (K2O, MgO, Al2O3, SiO2, H2O

CHAPTER 9 CERAMIC INDUSTRIESBASIC RAW MATERIALS Feldspar a mineral that is used as fluxing agent in ceramic formulas; it may exist in the clay or may be added as required. - composed of aluminosilicates of potassium, sodium, calcium, or occasionally barium. Feldspar; the most abundant mineral in the world found in igneous and metamorphic rocks.

CHAPTER 9 CERAMIC INDUSTRIESBASIC RAW MATERIALS Three common types of Feldspar: 1. Potash (K2O.Al2O3.6SiO2) 2. Soda (Na2O.Al2O3.6SiO2) 3. Lime (CaO.Al2O3.6SiO2)

CHAPTER 9 CERAMIC INDUSTRIESBASIC RAW MATERIALS Some common fluxing agents(refers to a material employed to lower the melting point of more refractory materials): Borax Boric acid Soda ash Sodium nitrate Pearl ash Nepheline Syenite calcined bones flourspar cryolite iron oxides antimony oxides lead oxides lithium minerals barium minerals

CHAPTER 9 CERAMIC INDUSTRIESBASIC RAW MATERIALS Sand or flint

CHAPTER 9 CERAMIC INDUSTRIESUSES Mechanical applications valves and turbocharger rotors for high-temperature diesel and gas-turbine engines Electrical & Magnetic applications insulators, semiconductors, conductors, and magnets. Aerospace space shuttle tiles

CHAPTER 9 CERAMIC INDUSTRIESUSES Bioceramics dental specialists use this ceramic to make hip joints, dental caps, and dental bridges. calcium hydroxyl phosphates are compatible with bone and are used to reconstruct fractured or diseased bone Nuclear Power uranium ceramic pellets to generate nuclear power.

CHAPTER 9 CERAMIC INDUSTRIESUSES Building & Construction bricks, tiles, piping, and other construction materials. Household fixtures such as sinks and bathtubs are made from feldspar- and clay-based ceramics. Coatings household appliances, such as refrigerators, stoves, washing machines, and dryers, are often coated with ceramic enamel.

CHAPTER 10 PORTLAND CEMENTS, CALCIUM & MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDSOutline.. Introduction Types of Portland Cement Uses of Portland Cement Industrial Applications Economics Environmental effects

CHAPTER 10 PORTLAND CEMENTS, CALCIUM & MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDSINTRODUCTION Cements are used for various purposes, such as binding sand and gravel together with portland cement to form concrete, for uniting the surfaces of various materials, or for coating surfaces to protect them from chemical attack. Portland cement is a material which consist of at least two-thirds by mass of calcium silicates (3CaOSiO2 and 2CaOSiO2), the remainder consisting of aluminium- and iron-containing clinker phases and other compounds. The ratio of CaO to SiO2 shall not be less than 2.0. The magnesium oxide content MgO shall not exceed 5.0% by mass.

CHAPTER 10 PORTLAND CEMENTS, CALCIUM & MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDSINTRODUCTION Five component system of PC: CaO MgO Al2O3 Fe2O2 SiO2

CHAPTER 10 PORTLAND CEMENTS, CALCIUM & MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDSTYPES OF PORTLAND CEMENT 1. TYPE I Regular PC for general concrete construction. The typical compound compositions of this type are: 55% (C3S), 19% (C2S), 10% (C3A), 7% (C4AF), 2.8% MgO, 2.9% (SO3), 1.0% Ignition loss, and 1.0% free CaO. 2. TYPE II Moderate-heat-of-hardening and Sulfate-resisting PC used for moderate heat of hydration is required or for concrete construction exposed to moderate sulfate action. Heat evolved must not exceed 70 & 80 cal/g after 7-28 days. Its typical compound composition is: 51% (C3S), 24% (C2S), 6% (C3A), 11% (C4AF), 2.9% MgO, 2.5% (SO3), 0.8% Ignition loss, and 1.0% free CaO.

CHAPTER 10 PORTLAND CEMENTS, CALCIUM & MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDSTYPES OF PORTLAND CEMENT 3. TYPE III High-early-strength (HES) made fro lime-to-silica ratio higher that type I and finer than type I. Contains high C3S than type l. it hardens quicker and evolution of heat is faster. Its typical compound composition is: 57% (C3S), 19% (C2S), 10% (C3A), 7% (C4AF), 3.0% MgO, 3.1% (SO3), 0.9% Ignition loss, and 1.3% free CaO.

CHAPTER 10 PORTLAND CEMENTS, CALCIUM & MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDSTYPES OF PORTLAND CEMENT 4. TYPE IV Low-heat PC contains lower % of C3S and C3A lowers evolution. Gen known for its lw heat of hydration. C4AF is increased because of the addition of Fe2O3, heat should not exceed to 60 and 70 cal/g after 7-28 days. Its typical compound composition is: 28% (C3S), 49% (C2S), 4% (C3A), 12% (C4AF), 1.8% MgO, 1.9% (SO3), 0.9% Ignition loss, and 0.8% free CaO.

CHAPTER 10 PORTLAND CEMENTS, CALCIUM & MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDSTYPES OF PORTLAND CEMENT 5. TYPE V Sulfate-resisting PC that resist sulfates than the other 4 types. C3A is lower and as a result C4AF is higher than reg. cements. Its typical compound composition is: 38% (C3S), 43% (C2S), 4% (C3A), 9% (C4AF), 1.9% MgO, 1.8% (SO3), 0.9% Ignition loss, and 0.8% free CaO. Recently added type of Portland Cement: TYPES Ia, IIa, and IIIa - have recently been added to ASTM C-150 in 2009with a similar composition as types II and IIa but with a mild heat.

CHAPTER 10 PORTLAND CEMENTS, CALCIUM & MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDSUSES OF PORTLAND CEMENT Production of concrete Mortars Plasters Grouts

CHAPTER 10 PORTLAND CEMENTS, CALCIUM & MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDSECONOMICS OF CEMENT In 2008, the United States consumed 93.6 million metric tons of portland cement, reflecting a -15.2% decrease over 2007 levels. The industry down turn was first linked to the mortgage foreclosure crisis which decreased residential construction spending activity by -18.5% in 2007 and -29.9% in 2008. Cement consumption is dependent