Ceramics and glass materials

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  • Ceramic and Glass Materials

    Structure, Properties and Processing

  • James F. Shackelford Robert H. DoremusEditors

    Ceramic and Glass Materials

    Structure, Properties and Processing

  • EditorsJames F. Shackelford Robert H. DoremusUniversity of California, Davis Materials Research CenterDept. Chemical Engineering Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute & Materials Science Dept. Materials Science & Engineering1 Shields Avenue 110 8th StreetDavis, CA 95616 Troy, NY 12180-3590

    ISBN 978-0-387-73361-6 e-ISBN 978-0-387-73362-3DOI 10.1007/978-0-387-73362-3

    Library of Congress Control Number: 2007938894

    2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLCAll rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher (Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA), except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed is forbidden. The use in this publication of trade names, trademarks, service marks, and similar terms, even if they are not identifi ed as such, is not to be taken as an expression of opinion as to whether or not they are subject to proprietary rights.

    Printed on acid-free paper

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  • Robert H. Doremus A Dedication

    With sadness, I note that in late January 2008 while finishing the editing of this book, Bob Doremus passed away suddenly in Florida. His wife and one of his daughters were with him at the time. Characteristic of his meticulous attention to detail, he had just finished personally preparing the index for this volume. Professor Doremus was an icon of ceramic and glass science, and this volume is a fitting tribute to his career. In addition to editing the book, he provided the opening chapter on alumina, the quin-tessential structural ceramic material.

    After finishing two Ph.D. degrees in physical chemistry (University of Illinois, 1953 and University of Cambridge, 1956), Dr. Doremus worked at the General Electric Research and Development Laboratory for many years during a period of time that can fairly be described as a golden age of ceramic and glass science. His colleagues included Robert Coble, Joseph Burke, and Paul Jorgensen. There, he con-ducted seminal research including classic studies of gas and water diffusion in ceram-ics and glasses.

    In 1971, he moved to the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and began a long career as an educator. He continued to work on a broad range of topics in ceramic and glass science and was especially well known for publishing the definitive version of the important alumina-silica phase diagram [Klug, Prochazka, and Doremus, J.Am.Ceram.Soc., 70 750 (1987)] as well as doing pioneering work on bioceramics for medical applications. At Rensselaer, Bob was named the New York State Science and Technology Foundation Professor of Glass and Ceramics and served as Department Chair from 1986 to 1995.

    Appropriate to his distinguished career as a scientist and educator, Bob received numerous awards in recognition of his accomplishments. Resulting in nearly 300 publi-cations, his research contributions were recognized with the Scholes Award of Alfred University, the Morey Award of the American Ceramic Society, and the Ross Coffin Purdy Award, the American Ceramic Societys top honor for research. He received numerous teaching awards while at Rensselaer, including the Outstanding Educator Award of the American Ceramic Society. His winning the top research and educator awards of the American Ceramic Society is symbolic of his remarkable career.

    Beyond these professional accomplishments of a great scientist and dedicated teacher, Bob Doremus was a devoted family man and leaves behind his wife Germaine

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  • and children Carol, Elaine, Mark, and Natalie. As with his family, Bob cared deeply about his students and worked tirelessly to help them. He was also a fine and support-ive colleague. He will be greatly missed, and this book is dedicated to him with both affection and respect.

    J.F. ShackelfordDavis, CA

    February 2008

    vi Robert H. Doremus A Dedication

  • Preface

    This book is intended to be a concise and comprehensive coverage of the key ceramic and glass materials used in modern technology. A group of international experts have contributed a wide ranging set of chapters that literally covers this field from A (Chap. 1) to Z (Chap. 10). Each chapter focuses on the structureproperty relationships for these important materials and expands our understanding of their nature by simultaneously discussing the technology of their processing methods. In each case, the resulting understanding of the contemporary applications of the materials provides insights as to their future role in twenty-first century engineering and technology.

    The book is intended for advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and working professionals. Although authored by members of the materials science and engineer-ing community, the book can be useful for readers in a wide range of scientific and engineering fields.

    Robert Doremus of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute covers one of the most ubiquitous modern ceramics in Chap. 1. The popularity of alumina by itself and as a component in numerous ceramic and glass products follows from its wide range of attractive properties. In Chap. 2, Duval, Risbud, and Shackelford of the University of California, Davis, look at the closely related and similarly ubiquitous material com-posed of three parts of alumina and two parts of silica, the only stable intermediate phase in the aluminasilica system at atmospheric pressure. Mullite has had significant applications in refractories and pottery for millennia and new applications in struc-tures, electronics, and optics are the focus of active research. Richard Bradt of the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, provides Chap. 3, a focused discussion of the intriguing minerals (andalusite, kyanite, and sillimanite) that do not appear on the common aluminasilica phase diagram as they are formed at high geological pressures and temperatures. Nonetheless, these minerals with a one-to-one ratio of alumina to silica are widely found in nature and are used in numerous applications such as refrac-tories for the steel and glass industries. In Chap. 4, Martin Wilding of the University of Wales, Aberystwyth, further expands the compositional range of materials considered by exploring the ceramics and glasses formed in binary aluminate systems. Sharing the high melting point and chemical resistance of the alumina end-member, these aluminates find a wide range of applications from cements to bioceramics and electronic components.

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  • In Chap. 5, Davila, Risbud, and Shackelford of the University of California, Davis, review the various ceramic and glass materials that come from silica, the most abundant mineral in the Earths crust. The many examples they give share a simple chemistry but display a wide range of crystalline and noncrystalline structures. The materials also represent some of the most traditional ceramic and glass applications as well as some of the most sophisticated, recent technological advances. In Chap. 6, Smith and Fahrenholtz of the University of Missouri, Rolla, cover a vast array of ceramic materials, including many of the materials covered in other chapters in this book. The resulting perspective is useful for appreciating the context in which ceramics are used for one of their most important properties, viz. the resistance to high temperatures. Professor Fahrenholtz then provides a comprehensive coverage of clays in Chap. 7. These important minerals that serve as raw materials for so many of the traditional ceramics are also providing a framework for the science of the study of advanced ceramics. In Chap. 8, Mariano Velez of the Mo-Sci Corporation reviews the ceramic oxides that are used for the two distinctive markets of (a) structural applica-tions and (b) high temperature (refractory) concretes.

    Professor Julie Schoenung of the University of California, Davis, reviews a wide range of minerals in Chap. 9. These materials produce the various lead oxides and silicates so widely used in lead-containing glasses and crystalline electronic ceramics. The regulatory issues surrounding these well known carcinogenic materials are also discussed. Finally in Chap. 10, Olivia Graeve of the University of Nevada, Reno, reviews the complex structural and processing issues associated with the family of ceramics zirconia that is widely used because of the superior values of toughness and ionic conductivity.

    Finally, we thank the staff of Springer for their consistent encouragement and professional guidance in regards to this book. We especially appreciate Gregory Franklin for helping to initiate the project and Jennifer Mirski for guiding it to completion.

    Davis, CA ShackelfordTroy, NY Doremus

    viii Preface

  • Contents

    Preface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii

    Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi

    Chapter 1 Alumina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Robert H. Doremus

    Chapter 2 Mullite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27David J. Duval, Subhash H. Risbud, and James F. Shackelford

    Chapter