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    UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIASanta Barbara

    End-of-Life Management of Cell Phones

    in the United States

    A Group Project submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirementsfor the degree of

    Masters of Environmental Science and Management for theDonald Bren School of Environmental Science and Management

    Researched and written by:

    Joaquin Neira

    Leigh Favret

    Mihoyo Fuji

    Robert Miller

    Sarvy Mahdavi

    Vered Doctori Blass

    Advisor:

    Assistant Professor Roland Geyer

    April 2006

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    End-of-Life Management of Cell Phones

    in the United States

    As authors of this Group Project Report, we are proud to archive it on the Bren

    Schools website such that the results of our research are available for all to read. Oursignatures on the document signify our joint responsibility to fulfill the archivingstandards set by the Donald Bren School of Environmental Science and Management.

    _____________________________ _____________________________

    Vered H. Doctori Blass Leigh Favret

    _____________________________ _____________________________

    Mihoyo Fuji Robert A. Miller

    _____________________________ _____________________________

    Sarvy Mahdavi Joaquin Neira

    The mission of the Donald Bren School of Environmental Science and Managementis to produce professionals with unrivaled training in environmental science andmanagement who devote their unique skills to the diagnosis, assessment, mitigation,prevention, and remedy of the environmental problems of today and the future. A

    guiding principle of the School is that the analysis of environmental problemsrequires quantitative training in more than one discipline and an awareness of thephysical, biological, social, political, and economic consequences that arise fromscientific or technological decisions.

    The Group Project is required of all students in the Masters of EnvironmentalScience and Management (MESM) Program. It is a four quarter activity in whichsmall groups students conduct focused research on the scientific, management, andpolicy dimensions of a specific environmental issue. This Final Group Project Reportis authored by MESM students and has reviewed and approved by:

    _____________________________ _____________________________

    Roland Geyer Ernst von Weizscker

    April 2006

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    AcknowledgementsWe would like to thank our faculty advisor Roland Geyer of the UC Santa BarbarasBren School, and our committee members Paul Rellis of UCSB, Karen Gumtow ofthe County of Santa Barbara, and Stephen M. Biersmith for their guidance and

    contributions throughout our project. We also thank Bobby Aultman of RMSCommunications Inc. and Mark Rousseau of Housing & Residential Services, UCSBfor helping with collection of phones; Thomas Hogye, Ken Taggart, and Steve Ryanof ECS Refining for providing recycling services and sharing information; MikeNewman, Jennifer Chambers, and Brandi Farwig of ReCellular Inc., Seth Heine ofCollectiveGood, Mike Roselius of Pacebutler Corporation, Craig Boswell of HobiInternational Inc., Robin Haeffner of Alltel, Liz McCleskey of Cingular Wireless, EdButler, David Conrad, and Dennis Pettit of Nokia, Pam Arrigo of Motorola, MarkBuckley of Staples Inc., Joseph Chiodo of Active Disassembly Research Ltd., Chuan-Hai Teh of Noranda Recycling, Leslie Robinson of the County of Santa Barbara, DonSheppard of County of Ventura, for providing important insight to the different

    aspects of the project; George Havalias of American Analytics Inc. for providing labanalysis services.

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    Table of ContentsTable of Contents............................................................................................................. ivList of Tables ................................................................................................................... viiList of Figures................................................................................................................. viiiList of Appendixes............................................................................................................ ixDefinitions.......................................................................................................................... xCommon Acronyms........................................................................................................ xii1. Abstract............................................................................................................... xiii2. Executive Summary........................................................................................... xiv3. Introduction........................................................................................................... 14. Project Scope and Objectives............................................................................... 35. Methodology .......................................................................................................... 46. Product Design ...................................................................................................... 6

    6.1. History and Evolution of Cell Phones .......................................................... 66.2. Transmission Standards ................................................................................ 86.3. Basic Components of Cell Phones................................................................ 96.4. Material Composition of Cell phones ......................................................... 11

    6.4.1. Plastic.................................................................................................. 136.4.2. Hazardous Substances......................................................................... 13

    6.5. Design for Environment.............................................................................. 186.5.1. Material change................................................................................... 186.5.2. Toxicity............................................................................................... 206.5.3. Disassembly and recycle-ability ......................................................... 26

    7. Legislation............................................................................................................ 317.1. Key Components of Cell Phone Legislation............................................... 317.2. E-Waste/Cell Phone legislation in Europe.................................................. 32

    7.2.1. WEEE Directive 2002/96/EC ............................................................. 327.2.2. Individual vs. Collective Take Back Responsibility........................... 347.2.3. WEEE Implementation Status ............................................................ 357.2.4. Unresolved Issues ............................................................................... 367.2.5. RoHS Directive 2002/95/EC and Basel Convention .......................... 38

    7.3. E-Waste/Cell Phone Legislation in the U.S................................................ 387.3.1. Federal................................................................................................. 387.3.2. Regional .............................................................................................. 407.3.3. States ................................................................................................... 40

    7.4. Stakeholder Positions.................................................................................. 427.4.1. Original Equipment Manufacturers .................................................... 42

    7.4.2. Retailers .............................................................................................. 427.4.3. Environmental Organizations ............................................................. 427.4.4. Municipal Waste Managers ................................................................ 437.4.5. Resellers.............................................................................................. 43

    7.5. Policy Approaches ...................................................................................... 437.5.1. Voluntary Approaches ........................................................................ 43

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    7.5.2. Mandatory Approaches....................................................................... 448. End-of-Life (EoL) Management Options.......................................................... 46

    8.1. General........................................................................................................ 468.2. EoL Market Overview ................................................................................ 49

    8.2.1. Market for Second-Hand Phones ........................................................ 508.2.2. Market for Second-Hand Components ............................................... 518.2.3. Market for Recovered Materials ......................................................... 52

    8.3. Stakeholders in EoL cell phone market ...................................................... 538.4. Existing programs ....................................................................................... 578.5. Process Overview........................................................................................ 59

    8.5.1. Collection and Transportation............................................................. 598.5.2. Pre-Processing..................................................................................... 618.5.3. Reuse of Phones.............