Cell Structure & Function

Click here to load reader

download Cell Structure & Function

of 85

  • date post

    24-Feb-2016
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    19
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

description

Cell Structure & Function. Eukaryotes Plant & Animal Cells. http://www.kentuckycrosswords.com/library/nature/cell.html. An area inside the nucleus made up of RNA and protein and plays a role in the formation of ribosomes. 1. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Cell Structure & Function

Cell Structure & Function

Cell Structure & FunctionEukaryotesPlant & Animal Cellshttp://www.kentuckycrosswords.com/library/nature/cell.htmlAn area inside the nucleus made up of RNA and protein and plays a role in the formation of ribosomes.1.

The largest organelle in the cell which contain chromosomes, which in turn contain the cells DNA. It is like the brain of the cell.2.

The most numerous organelle in a cell, it is the site of protein synthesis. Some are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum and some are free floating in the cytoplasm.3.

Small, bubble-like membranous structures that store and transport cellular products. They originate from the endomembrane system.4.

An elaborate membrane network studded with ribosomes. It is the site where polypeptides are folded and assembled into secretory proteins, like insulin and hemoglobin. Membrane components are also made here.5.

1. Nucleolus2. Nucleus3. Ribosome4. Vesicle5. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)This organelle receives proteins and lipids from the ER where they are modified, sorted, and packaged for storage or transport in and out of the cell. It is known as the warehouse or shipping station.6.

This represents one component of a web of proteins known as the __. Its components include microtubules and microfilaments, which help cells keep their shape, divide, transport products, and move about. 7.

An elaborate membrane network where carbohydrates, lipids, hormones, and steroids are made. It also produces enzymes that help get rid of toxins, such as drugs.8.

Known as the powerhouse of the cell. It converts chemical energy stored in food (glucose, amino acids, fatty acids) into usable compounds, like ATP.9.

Large membranous sacs that store material like water, proteins, salts, and sugars. Plants have a very large one that helps keep the plant upright. Paramecia uses special ones that contract to pump excess water out of the cell.10.

6. Golgi apparatus7. Cytoskeleton8. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)9. Mitochondria10. VacuoleThe portion of the cell outside the nucleus. It contains the cytosol (liquid portion) and organelles.11.

These membranous sacs carry digestive enzymes that breakdown and recycle macromolecules, like lipids, sugars, and proteins. They also help break down organelles that are no longer useful. They are not found in plant cells.12.

Found only in animal cells, these structures are made out of microtubules. While associated with mitotic spindle and cell division, it is unclear what their function is.13.

Made of a lipid bilayer, this structure controls what enters and leaves the cell. It also protects and supports the cell.14.

Tiny hair-like folds in the plasma membrane that extend from the surface of many absorptive and secretory cells. They are about 10 times smaller than cilia.15.

15

11. Cytoplasm12. Lysosome13. Centrioles14. Cell (plasma) membrane15. Microvilli

A long hair-like structure that acts primarily as an organelle of locomotion.16.16

Short hair-like structures that acts primarily as an organelle of locomotion or to move liquid past the surface of a cell. They are made of microtubules and are about 10 times larger than microvilli.17.

17

The yellow thread-like structures (~25 nm diameter) are made up of proteins called tubulins. They are found in hair-like organelles called flagella and cilia and act as tracks for organelles and vesicles to move on. They are also make up centrioles and mitotic spindles. 18.18

Tubulin TubulinThe purple thread-like structures (~7 nm diameter) are made up of proteins called actin. They are constantly being built up and taken down in different parts of the cell, allowing amoebas and other cells to crawl along surfaces.19.19

actinAmoeba

The green thread-like structures (8-12 nm diameter) is a key structural component of cells. Made of keratin proteins, these filaments also serve to anchor desmosomes (anchoring junctions) to the cytoplasm.20.Desmosomes

20Keratin16. Flagellum17. Cilia18. Microtubules19. Microfilaments20. Intermediate filamentsMicroscopic channels which traverse the cell walls of plant cells and some algal cells, enabling transport and communication between them.21.

212121The internal compartments formed by the folding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion. This folding greatly increases the surface area for the production of ATP in the cell.22.

22A small, circular piece of DNA located in the cytoplasm of many bacteria.23.

1 m23Flattened membrane structures that contain fluid. Found in endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi bodies. 24.

24

25.Hint: Powerhouse of the cell. What might the purple dots be?21. Plasmodesmata22. Cristae23. Plasmid24. Cisternae25. Mitochondrion & Ribosomes (purple dots)

26.Hint: Part of the endomembrane system. Be sure to identify both the blue and green colored structures.

27.Hint: This organelle modifies, sorts, and ships out proteins and lipids.

28.Hint: Notice the stacks of thylakoids (granum).GranumGranaThylakoidStroma

Hint: They are shorter and narrower than cilia and made of microfilaments (actin). Found in 29.

30.Hint: This is a cross section showing 20 microtubules in what is known as a 9 + 2 pattern.26. RER and ribosomes (green dots)27. Golgi Apparatus28. Chloroplast Microvilli Cross-section of cilium or flagellum31.Hint: This organelle is from a pea plant.

32.Hint: This is a cross-section of an organelle. The inner folds are called cristae.

Hint: They are longer and wider than microvilli and made up of microtubules.33.

34.Hint: They are not found in plant cells and they always occur in pairs aligned perpendicular to each other. They are made of microtubules.

35.Name both the pancake stack and associated bubbles. 31. Chloroplast32. Mitochondrion33. Cilia34. Centrioles35. Golgi Apparatus with vesicles

36.Cell ACell BIdentify the dark-blue linear structures bordering each cell.

37.Hint: You are looking at the surface of a nuclear envelope

38.What is the rod-shaped organelle and what membranous structure surrounds it?

39a39b39.Hint: None of these structures are cilia.

4040.What is the long tube called and what is its function.36. Cell (plasma) membrane37. Nuclear pores38. Mitochondrion & RER39. Flagella & pili Conjugation (sex) or F (fertility) pilus (It is used to transfer a plasmid from a donor bacterium to a recipient bacterium).

41a41b41.Hint: Both are part of the endomembrane system.

~25 nm{Inside a nerve axon42.What are these cytoskeleton tubes called? Hint: Cilia and flagella are made of these.43{Paramecium

43.Hint: They pump water out of the cell.44.Hint: This is a cross section showing 27 microtubules. They are arranged as 9 groups of triplet microtubules.

4541. RER (41a) and SER (41b)42. Microtubules43. Contractile vacuoles44. Cross-section of centriole or basal body45. Mitochondria

46

47

48

49

5046. Cell (plasma) membrane47. Centrioles48. Golgi body49. Nucleolus50. Nucleus with chromatin

51Hint: Contains digestive enzymes.

52

53

54

5551. Lysosome52. Mitochondrion53. Central vacuole54. Chloroplast55. Cell wall

56

57

58

59

6056. Cell (plasma) membrane57. Golgi Apparatus58. Nucleus59. Cell (plasma) membrane60. DNA (nucleoid)

61

62

63

64

6561. Capsule62. Cell wall63. Mesosome64. Ribosome65. Cytoplasm

66

6768.

Animal, Plant, or Prokaryote?69.Animal, Plant, or Prokaryote?

70.Animal, Plant, or Bacterium?

66. Pilus67. Flagellum68. Prokaryote69. Plant (corn leaf)70. None of these. Euglena are protists. (Euglena have chloroplasts like plants but lack a cell wall. Unlike plants, they have flagella, a red eyespot, and are able to consume food via phagocytosis.