Cell structure & Function

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Cell structure & Function. Cell Wall. Main function – provide support & protection for the cell Made of cellulose (carbohydrates) and protiens Located outside the cell membrane of plant, fungi, and some protist cells. Cell Membrane. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Cell structure & Function


Cell structure & FunctionCell WallMain function provide support & protection for the cellMade of cellulose (carbohydrates) and protiensLocated outside the cell membrane of plant, fungi, and some protist cells

Cell MembraneMain function outer boundary of cell; regulates what can enter and exit the cellComposed of a phospholipid bilayer w/ proteins embedded in the membranes; carbohydrates may attach to proteins

CytoplasmMain function substance where organelles are suspended; site of many chemical reactionsFluid substance that fills the space between the cell membrane and the nucleus

NucleusMain function controls most cell processes and contains hereditary information (DNA)Composed of a Nuclear membraneNuclear pores NucleolusChromatin/ChromosomesLocated in all eukaryotic cellsScanning Transmission

Chromatin/ChromosomesChromatin DNA & Protein when it is loose and thread-like; granular looking; most of the timeChromosomes DNA & Protein when it condenses to form distinct structures; when cells are dividing

nucleolusMain function production / assembly of ribosomesDense region within the nucleus

Nuclear MembraneMain function surround and protect the contents of the nucleusDouble membrane layerDotted with thousands of nuclear pore which allow material to move into and out of the nucleus

CytoskeletonMain function help the cell maintain its shape; also involved in many forms of cell movementNetwork of protein filamentsMicrofilaments smallest; movement & supportIntermediate filaments medium sizedMicrotubules largest; transport; cilia; flagella

RibosomesMain function site of protein synthesisComposed of RNA and proteinCan be free floating in the cytoplasm or attached to endoplasmic reticulum

Endoplasmic ReticulumRough ER Main function manufacture and distribution of proteins; ribosomes are attachedSmooth ER Main function manufacture of lipids and break down toxins; NO ribosomes are attached

Golgi ApparatusMain Function modifies, packages, and distributes material in the cell; Material is received from the ER, modified in the Golgi, then sent to the cell or out of cell. Stack of membranes

LysosomeMain function break down food and/or worn out organellesSmall sack containing digestive enzymes

VacuoleMain function store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydratesPlants have a large central vacuole that help the plant stand uprightSaclike structures

ChloroplastsMain function use energy from sunlight to make energy-rich food molecules; site of photosynthesisDouble membrane structure that contain large states of green membranes; green color is due to the pigment chlorophyll

MitochondriaMain function use energy from food to make high-energy compounds that eh cell can use to power growth, development, and movementDouble membrane structure; inner membrane is highly folded

EndosymbiosisTheory that states - mitochondria and chloroplasts are descendents from ancient prokaryotic cells that were engulfed by other cells; the two cells formed a symbiotic relationship where both cells benefited. Evidence = mitochondria & chloroplasts have DNA, ribosomes, and can divide independently of the cell