CELL structure & function

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CELL structure & function. The cell theory is a fundamental concept in biology. It states: All living things are composed of cells. The cell is the basic structural unit of all living things. All cells arise from pre-existing cells. CELL THEORY. PROKARYOTIC Lack a “true” nucleus - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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CELLS

CELL structure & functionCELL THEORYThe cell theory is a fundamental concept in biology. It states:

All living things are composed of cells.The cell is the basic structural unit of all living things.All cells arise from pre-existing cells.Two types of cellsPROKARYOTICLack a true nucleusDo not have organellesBacteria is the most common exampleEUKARYOTICHave a nucleusContain organelles separated by membranesMuch larger than prokaryotic cellsTwo Types of Eukaryotic Cells

Animal Cells

Plant CellsCOMMON ORGANELLES1. CELL MEMBRANEThe skin of the cell; it holds everything inside.It is SEMIPERMEABLE which means it allows certain things to go through it.2. NUCLEUSThe control centre or brain of the cell.Usually the largest organelle.Where DNA is stored. DNA contains the chromosomes which is where all genetic information is found.

3. CYTOPLASMA jelly-like substance composed of mostly water that surrounds and protects the organelles.4. VACUOLESSac-like containers made from pieces of cells membrane.

5. RIBOSOMESThe builders of protein.They are dark looking dense granules that can be free floating in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum.Composed of RNA and PROTEIN.6. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUMA series of canals or small tubules that branch out from the nucleus.ROUGH ER has ribosomes attached.SMOOTH ER has no ribosomes.

7. GOLGI APPARATUSLooks like a flattened stack of pancakes.Where protein is stored until needed.If the protein is needed outside of the cell, the GA packages it into a vacuole and sends it to the cells membrane for transport.8. MITOCHONDRIAThe powerhouse of the cell.The site of CELLULAR RESPIRATION in cells which use glucose and oxygen to make carbon dioxide, water and ATP (energy).

9. LYSOSOMESMembrane bound sacs that aid in digestion.Certain types of human white blood cells use lysosomes to destroy invading bacteria. For this reason they have the nickname SUICIDE CELLS.They also function in breaking down damaged organelles in a cell.DIFFERENCES Despite the fact that plant and animal cells contain the above 9 organelles in common they have some significant difference as well.PLANT CELLSANIMAL CELLSAngular in shapeIrregular in shapeTightly packedLoosely gatheredLarge vaculolesSmall vaculolesContain cell wallNo cell wallContain chloroplastsNo chloroplastsNo centriolesContain centriolesCELL WALLMade from a rigid material called CELLULOSE.They provide plants with structural support and allow them to grow tall without falling over.CHLOROPLASTSThese organelles capture energy from the sun and convert it into chemical energy in a process called PHOTOSYNTHESIS.They are composed of a double membrane and an internal membrane system that contains CHLOROPHYLL which is a light capturing molecule.

CENTRIOLESCentrioles organize the spindle apparatus on which the chromosomes move during mitosis.They are critical to cell division.