Cell Structure & Function

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Cell Structure & Function. Describe this picture. What is the basic substance required to make this structure.?. BRICKS ACT AS BUILDING BLOCKS TO CREAT THE BRICK BUILDING. What are we made up of?. So what is the definition of a cell??. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Cell Structure & Function

  • Describe this picture. What is the basic substance required to make this structure.?

  • BRICKS ACT AS BUILDING BLOCKS TO CREAT THE BRICK BUILDING.

  • What are we made up of?

  • So what is the definition of a cell??

  • They are building blocks of all living things and they are the basic unit of life !!!!!

  • What do you think the building block of a dog is ?

  • So what are the various points you can think of to describe a cell?

  • Cell TheoryAll living things are made up of cells. Cells are the smallest working units of all living things.They are the structural and functional unit of life. (why?)All cells come from preexisting cells through cell division.

  • A cell is the smallest structural and functional unit of life.

  • Cell TheoryAll living things are made up of cells. Cells are the smallest working units of all living things.They are the structural and functional unit of life. (why?)All cells come from preexisting cells through cell division.

  • A cell is the smallest structural and functional unit of life.

  • Examples of CellsAmoeba Plant StemRed Blood CellNerve CellBacteria

  • adult humantallest treeschicken eggfrog embryomost eukaryotic cellsmitochondrionmost bacteriavirusproteinsatomsdiameter of DNAdouble helix

  • http://waynesword.palomar.edu/images/plant3.gif

  • http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/images/cell.gif

  • Organelles

  • Cell MembraneIt is the Outer membrane of an animal cell. It is located below the cell wall in the plant cell. Its main function is to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell.It is a Double layer called lipid bi layerScientists say that thecell membraneis selectively permeable, which means that only certain substances can permeate (go through) the membrane.It is found in both plant and animal cellsIt also helps give shape to the cell

    http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

  • Cell membrane

  • Cell WallMost commonly found in plant cells & bacteria. NOT present in animal cellsSurrounds the cell membrane in a plant cellMost important function is to give the cells shape and rigidity.It also Supports & protects cells.

    http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

  • CytoplasmJelly-like substanceSurrounded by cell membraneAll cell organelles are embedded in this.It contains the chemicals which are necessary to carry out all the reactions that happen within a cell.Important chemical reactions occur in the cytoplasm whereby some of the products are utilized by the organelles.

  • Nucleus Easiest organelle to see under the microscopeControl center of the cellDirects cell activitiesSeparated from cytoplasm by nuclear membraneContains genetic material DNAControls the production of proteins in the cellsAll the information regarding the cell and its activities are stored here.

  • Nucleus

  • ChloroplastUsually found in plant cells. Also present in trace amounts in Bacteria, fungi and algae. It is not present in animal cells. Surrounded by two membranes (inner and outer) Contains a green pigment called chlorophyll which traps light energy and converts it into food through photosynthesis. It contains its own DNA.http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

  • Chloroplast

  • MitochondriaProduces energy through chemical reactions breaking down food.Surrounded by two membranes (outer and inner membrane). The inner membrane is folded several times.Controls level of water and other materials in cellRecycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydratesContain their own DNA.

    http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

  • VacuolesMembrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removalVacuolesmay contain large food particles,enzymes, water, or many other substances.Usually one large vacuole is present in plant cell (takes up 95% of space)Animal cells have small vacuoles but they are more in number.

    http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

  • RibosomesEach cell contains thousands of ribosomes. Produced in the nucleus of a cellThey act as factories of the cell to produce Proteins.They can be found either in their free form in the cytoplasm or attached to an organelle (The rough Endoplasmic Reticulum.)It is made up of a large sub unit and a small sub unit.

    http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

  • LysosomeDigestive organelle. They contain acidenzymes to break down food particles,waste materials and cellular debris. It can also destroyorganellesthat have been damaged. If thecelllacks an adequate amount of food, thelysosomesmay actually digest healthyorganellesto provide thecellwithenergy.Found only animal cellsShould thelysosomebreak and release its powerfulenzymes, the entirecellcan be destroyed, which is why thelysosomeis sometimes called the "suicide sac."

  • Endoplasmic ReticulumTwo types Smooth and rough ERRough ER as they have ribosomes attached to their surface. Protein synthesis occurs here.Smooth ER Carbohydrate metabolism and lipid and steroid synthesis. No ribosome present. Extends from the Nucleus

    *Figure: 04-01

    Title:Relative sizes.

    Caption:Dimensions commonly encountered in biology range from about 100 meters (the height of the tallest redwoods) through a few micrometers (the diameter of most cells) to a few nanometers (the diameter of many large molecules).