Cell Structure & Function

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    31-Dec-2015
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Cell Structure & Function. Cell Theory. All living things are made up of cells. Cells are the smallest working units of all living things. All cells come from preexisting cells through cell division. Definition of Cell. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Cell Structure & Function

  • Cell Structure & Function

  • Cell TheoryAll living things are made up of cells. Cells are the smallest working units of all living things. All cells come from preexisting cells through cell division.

  • Definition of CellA cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions.

  • Examples of CellsAmoeba ProteusPlant StemRed Blood CellNerve CellBacteria

  • Typical Animal Cell

  • Typical Plant Cell

  • Cell PartsSurrounding the Cell

  • Cell MembraneOuter membrane of cell that controls movement in and out of the cellDouble layer

  • Cell WallMost commonly found in plant cells & bacteriaSupports & protects cells

  • Inside the Cell

  • Nucleus Directs cell activitiesSeparated from cytoplasm by nuclear membraneContains genetic material - DNA

  • Nuclear MembraneSurrounds nucleusMade of two layersOpenings allow material to enter and leave nucleus

  • ChromosomesIn nucleusMade of DNAContain instructions for traits & characteristics

  • NucleolusInside nucleusContains RNA to build proteins

  • CytoplasmGel-like mixtureSurrounded by cell membraneContains hereditary material

  • Endoplasmic ReticulumMoves materials around in cellSmooth type: lacks ribosomesRough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface

  • RibosomesEach cell contains thousandsMake proteinsFound on ribosomes & floating throughout the cell

  • MitochondriaProduces energy through chemical reactions breaking down fats & carbohydratesControls level of water and other materials in cellRecycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates

  • Golgi BodiesProtein 'packaging plant'Move materials within the cellMove materials out of the cell

  • LysosomeDigestive 'plant' for proteins, fats, and carbohydratesTransports undigested material to cell membrane for removalCell breaks down if lysosome explodes

  • VacuolesMembrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removalContains water solutionHelp plants maintain shape

  • ChloroplastUsually found in plant cellsContains green chlorophyllWhere photosynthesis takes place