Cell Structure and · PDF file The diagram below shows a cell. Which type of cell structure...

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Transcript of Cell Structure and · PDF file The diagram below shows a cell. Which type of cell structure...

  • Biology Final 2011-2012 » Form A (Master Copy)

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    DataDirector Assessment ID: 66563 Page 1 of 33 © 2011 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. All rights reserved.

    Directions: Review the content below and answer the questions that follow

    Cell Structure and Division

    The diagrams below show the structure of many different cells.

    1. Which statement BEST describes the structure and function of the cells shown in Slide 1 and Slide 2?

    A. The cells are similar in structure and performsimilar functions.

    B. The cells are similar in structure but performdifferent functions.

    C. The cells are different in structure but performsimilar functions.

    D. The cells are different in structure and performdifferent functions.

    2. Gus observed the animal cell shown in Slide 1. He then observed the unicellular organism shown in Slide 4. Based on his observations, which conclusion will Gus MOST LIKELY reach about the organelles of unicellular and multicellular organisms?

    A. Multicellular organisms contain more complexorganelles than unicellular organisms.

    B. Unicellular organisms contain organelles that aresimilar to the organelles of multicellular organisms.

    C. Unicellular organisms have evolved from multicellular organisms and therefore contain the same organelles.

    D. Multicellular organisms are composed of many unicellular organisms and therefore contain the same organelles.

  • Biology Final 2011-2012 » Form A (Master Copy)

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    DataDirector Assessment ID: 66563 Page 2 of 33 © 2011 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. All rights reserved.

    Directions: Please choose the best answer choice for each of the following questions.

    3. The table below shows the characteristics of four cells that students are comparing under a microscope.

    Which cell in the table is MOST LIKELY a eukaryotic plant cell?

    A. 1

    B. 2

    C. 3

    D. 4

    4. The diagram below shows a cell.

    Which type of cell structure provides chemical energy for the cell?

    A. Structure 1

    B. Structure 2

    C. Structure 3

    D. Structure 4

    5. Which of these is both a reactant of photosynthesis and a product of cellular respiration?

    A. ATP

    B. oxygen

    C. glucose

    D. carbon dioxide

    6. One difference between plants and animals is that plants are

    A. prokaryotic and animals are eukaryotic.

    B. eukaryotic and animals are prokaryotic.

    C. autotrophs and animals are heterotrophs.

    D. heterotrophs and animals are autotrophs.

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    DataDirector Assessment ID: 66563 Page 3 of 33 © 2011 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. All rights reserved.

    7. Which statement BEST describes the transfer of energy between the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration?

    A. ATP is produced during cellular respiration, which is then used during photosynthesis to produce glucose.

    B. Glucose is used during photosynthesis to produce ATP, which is then used during cellular respiration to create proteins.

    C. Carbon dioxide and glucose are produced during cellular respiration and are used during photosynthesis to harness energy from the Sun.

    D. Oxygen and glucose are produced during photosynthesis and are used during cellular respiration to perform vital cellular functions.

    8. What is the source of energy for photosynthesis?

    A. the Sun

    B. Earth's internal heat

    C. radioactive decay

    D. nuclear fission

  • Biology Final 2011-2012 » Form A (Master Copy)

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    DataDirector Assessment ID: 66563 Page 4 of 33 © 2011 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. All rights reserved.

    Directions: Review the content below and answer the questions that follow

    9. Refer to the illustration above. The cell uses structure 3

    A. to transport material from one part of the cell toanother.

    B. to package proteins so they can be stored by thecell.

    C. as a receptor protein.

    D. to produce ATP.

    10. Refer to the illustration above. Structure 5 is

    A. part of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    B. a Golgi apparatus.

    C. a mitochondrion.

    D. the nucleus.

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    DataDirector Assessment ID: 66563 Page 5 of 33 © 2011 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. All rights reserved.

    Directions: Please choose the best answer choice for each of the following questions.

    11. A cell that requires a lot of energy might contain large numbers of

    A. chromosomes.

    B. vacuoles.

    C. mitochondria.

    D. lysosomes.

    12. Energy is released when glucose is converted to carbon dioxide in the

    A. cell membrane.

    B. mitochondria.

    C. ribosomes.

    D. chloroplasts.

    13.

    P: Phosphate group D: Sugar (deoxyribose) N: Nitrogen base

    The diagram above represents a molecule of a(n)

    A. codon.

    B. nucleotide.

    C. amino acid.

    D. nucleic acid.

    14. All organic compounds contain the element

    A. carbon.

    B. nitrogen.

    C. calcium.

    D. sodium.

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    DataDirector Assessment ID: 66563 Page 6 of 33 © 2011 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. All rights reserved.

    Directions: Review the content below and answer the questions that follow

    Using the information you have learned about cell reproduction, infer answers to the questions below about a cell with a diploid number of 4 chromosomes. Select from among the diagrams below, labeled A, B, C, D, and E, to answer the questions.

    15. Which of the diagrams above depicts a cell at the beginning of mitosis?

    A. B

    B. C

    C. D

    D. E

    16. Which of the diagrams above depicts a cell at the end of mitosis?

    A. A

    B. B

    C. C

    D. D

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    DataDirector Assessment ID: 66563 Page 7 of 33 © 2011 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. All rights reserved.

    Directions: Review the content below and answer the questions that follow

    17. Refer to the illustration above. The process shown is

    A. mitosis.

    B. chromosomal mutation.

    C. meiosis.

    D. dominance.

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    DataDirector Assessment ID: 66563 Page 8 of 33 © 2011 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. All rights reserved.

    Directions: Please choose the best answer choice for each of the following questions.

    18. Which of these statements about somatic cells in sexually reproducing organisms is true?

    A. Mutations in somatic cells cannot be passed tooffspring.

    B. Technology is currently unable to map the genesof somatic cells.

    C. Most mutations in somatic cells cause functionallydifferent proteins to develop.

    D. Ribosomes in somatic cells stop the deletion of base pairs, preventing changes in protein sequence from occurring.

    19. How many human sperm cells will be formed by a cell that undergoes meiosis?

    A. 1

    B. 2

    C. 4

    D. 8

    20. The chromosome of a bacterium

    A. is wrapped around proteins.

    B. has a circular shape.

    C. occurs in multiple pairs within the cell.

    D. is found within the nucleus.

    21. A specific genetic trait is determined by a dominant or recessive allele. Which of these describes how the alleles sort themselves during gamete production?

    A. Only the dominant allele is passed on to eachgamete.

    B. Only the recessive allele is passed on to eachgamete.

    C. Both dominant and recessive alleles appear ineach gamete.

    D. The dominant and recessive alleles separate andappear in separate gametes.

    22. The table below indicates the alleles present in a sex cell about to undergo meiosis. Ted believes that the alleles of one daughter cell may be ABCD, while Rita believes they may be ABcd.

    When the cell undergoes meiosis, how likely are these combinations of alleles to result?

    A. Ted's combination and Rita's combination areequally likely.

    B. Ted's combination is likely, but Rita's combinationis impossible.

    C. Rita's combination is likely, but Ted's combinationis impossible.

    D. Both combinations are possible, but Ted'scombination is more likely.

    23. During meiosis the arrangement and segregation of chromosomes ensures

    A. the production of four identical gametes.

    B. that chromosome pairs will remain connected.

    C. that all of the offspring will be identical to oneanother.

    D. the random assortment of chromosomes indaughter cells.

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    DataDirector Assessment ID: 66563 Page 9 of 33 © 2011 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. All rights reserved.

    24. In humans, which parent's genotype determines the sex of offspring?

    A. the father

    B. the mother

    C. both parents

    D. neither parent

    25. Which chromosome(s) does a human male inherit from his mother?

    A. X chromosome

    B. Y chromosome

    C. both sex chromosomes

    D. neither sex chromosome

  • Biology Final 2011-201