Cell Structure and Function

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Cell Structure and Function. The Discovery of the Cell. Robert Hooke – first to see and identify cork “ cells ” using a microscope. www.nerdscience.com. 7-1. The Cell Theory. Cell Theory: All living things are made of one or more cells. Cells are the smallest unit of life. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure and FunctionThe Discovery of the CellRobert Hooke first to see and identify cork cells using a microscope.

7-1www.nerdscience.comThe Cell TheoryCell Theory:All living things are made of one or more cells.Cells are the smallest unit of life.New cells are produced from pre-existing cells.

SchleidenSchwannVirchow7-1www.nerdscience.com3Basic Cell SubstancesThe main ingredient of any cell is water.

The structure of a water molecule makes it ideal for dissolving many other substances

MacromoleculesMacromolecules form when many small molecules join

The 4 types of macromolecules are:Nucleic acids- form when long chains of nucleotides join.Important because they contain genetic informationEx: DNA and RNA

Macromolecules4. Proteins- Necessary for nearly everything cells doMade up of long chains of molecules called amino acids.Some help break down nutrient in food

3. Lipids- large molecule that does not dissolve in waterStore energyPlays an important role as protective barriers in cells (membranes)

Macromolecules4. Carbohydrates-Made up of one or more sugar moleculesStore energyProvide structural supportUsed for communication between cells

Prokaryotes and EukaryotesCells can be grouped into 2 types:Prokaryotes cells that do not contain nuclei. Ex: (Bacteria)

Eukaryotes cells that contain nuclei and have membrane-surrounded components called organelles which have specialized functionsEx: plants, animals, fungi, protist

Eukaryotic Cell StructureOrganelles structures in a cell that act like little organs.

Cytoplasm the jelly-like fluid where the organelles float.It contains salts and other molecules

The NucleusNucleus large membrane-enclosed structure that contains the cells genetic information and directs cell activities

Nuclear Envelope membrane that surrounds the nucleus.

Nuclear EnvelopeMitochondriaMitochondria converts chemical energy stored in food into energy(ATP).Powerhouse of the Cell!Converts glucose and oxygen into ATP, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Water (Cellular Respiration)

ATP- the fuel for cellular processes such as growth, cell division, and material transport


MitochondriaRibosomesRibosomes Make Proteins!Found in a cells cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (E.R)


Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)Endoplasmic reticulum transports proteins to the Golgi apparatus and breaks down toxic material.Rough ER has ribosomesSmooth ER no ribosomesEndoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

Rough ERSmooth ERGolgi ApparatusGolgi Apparatus (Golgi bodies)- prepares proteins and packages them into ball-like structures called vesicles

Golgi ApparatusLysosomesLysosomes small organelles filled with enzymes that help recycle cellular components

VacuolesVacuoles store food, water, and waste materialAnimal cells have small vacuolesPlant cells have large Central Vacuoles

VacuolesChloroplastsChloroplasts organelles that capture energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy. (Photosynthesis)Found only in plants.

ChloroplastCytoskeletonCytoskeleton made of a network of threadlike proteins that are jointed to form a framework inside a cell.helps cell to maintain shape, move, and move organelles.

Cell BoundariesCell membrane thin, flexible membrane that surrounds the cell and protects the inside of a cell from the environment outside.Controls what enters and leaves the cell.Made of phospholipids (2 layers) and proteins.

Two layers!Cell BoundariesCell wall rigid layer around the membrane that provides structure and support. found only in bacteria, fungi and plants.

Cell AppendagesCell appendages are often used for movement.Flagella- long, tail- like appendage that whip back and forth and move a cell.

Cilia- short hair like structures that can move a cell or move molecules away from a cell.

Moving Cellular MaterialThe exchange of materials between as cell and its environment takes place at the cell membrane.

A cell membrane is semipermeable- it allows only certain substance to enter or leave a cellPassive TransportPassive transport the movement of substances through a cell membrane without using the cells energy

Diffusion movement of particles from an area of high to low concentration.

Diffusion continues until the concentration of a substance is the same on both sides of a membrane.

Osmosis the diffusion of water through a membrane.

Osmosis PracticeCell90% H2O10% NaCl90% H2O10% NaClConcentrations areequal, so no netmovement of water!7-3www.nerdscience.comOsmosis PracticeCell90% H2O10% NaCl80% H2O20% NaClConcentration ofwater is greater inthe cell than out, sowater will move out!www.nerdscience.comwww.nerdscience.comOsmosis PracticeCell80% H2O20% NaCl90% H2O10% NaClConcentration ofwater is greateroutside the cell than in, so water will move In!7-3www.nerdscience.comActive Transport2. Active Transport- The movement of materials across a cell membrane with the use of energyExocytosis a cells vesicles releases their contents outside of the cell.

Endocytosis the cell surrounds a large particle and brings it into the cell

Moves substances from areas of low concentration to areas oh high concentrationCell Size and TransportFor a cell to survive, its surface area must be large compared to its volume.

As a cell grows, its volume increases faster than its surface area

Cells & EnergyCELLULAR RESPIRATIONAll living things need energy to survive

Cellular Respiration converts the energy in food molecules into a usable form of energy called ATP

CELLULAR RESPIRATIONStep 1: Glycolysis- occurs in the cytoplasm of all cells

Glucose is broken down into smaller molecules

Step 2: Occurs in the mitochondria of Eukaryotic cells and requires oxygen

Small molecules made during glycolysis are broken down

Large amounts of usable energy called ATP are produced

Water and Carbon Dioxide is given offCELLULAR RESPIRATION7-3www.nerdscience.com

FERMENTATIONEukaryotic and prokaryotic cells use fermentation to obtain energy from foods when oxygen levels are low.

It occurs in the cells cytoplasm

Lactic- acid fermentation- Occurs in muscles C6H1206 ATP + Lactic Acid (Glucose) (energy)

Some types of bacteria and yeasts make ATP during alcohol fermentation.

C6H1206 ATP + Alcohol + CO2 (Glucose) (energy)

PHOTOSYNTHESISPlants and some unicellular organisms obtain energy from light (radiant energy)

Photosynthesis is a series of chemical reactions that converts light energy into chemical energy (Glucose)


In plants light energy is absorbed by pigments called chlorophyll

Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts

Uses CO2 that is released during cellular respiration to make food energy and release oxygen.