CELL STRUCTURE AND CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS Badil Dass ... Understand the structure of cell....

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Transcript of CELL STRUCTURE AND CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS Badil Dass ... Understand the structure of cell....

  • CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS

    Badil Dass

    Karachi King’s College of Nursing

  • �At the end of session students will be able to

    �Understand the structure of cell.

    �Identify cell organelles and their functions.

    �Explain DNA, Genes & Chromosomes.

    LEARNING OBJECTIVES

    2

    �Explain DNA, Genes & Chromosomes.

  • �Functional unit

    �Unicellular

    �Cellular level

    �Tissue level

    CELL

    3

    �Unicellular

    �Multicellular

    �Tissue level

    �Organ level

    �System level

  • Cellular level

    CELLULAR LEVEL

    4

    Cellular level

  • TISSUE LEVEL

    5

  • ORGAN LEVEL

    6

  • SYSTEM LEVEL

    7

  • 8

  • 9

  • � Controls cellular traffic

    � Proteins that span

    PLASMA MEMBRANE

    10

    through the membrane and allow passage of materials

    � Phospholipid bi- layer.

  • � Powerhouse of the cell

    � Double-layered outer membrane with inner folds calledcristae

    � Energy-producing

    MITOCHONDRIA

    11

    � Energy-producing chemical reactions take place on cristae

    � Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, and forms urea.

  • � Other cellular activities � Apoptosis. � Production of cholesterol and

    heme

    � Mitochondrial DNA contains

    MITOCHONDRIA

    12

    � Mitochondrial DNA contains 37 genes

    � Thirteen of these genes for enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation.

    � Remaining genes for � tRNAs � rRNAs

  • �Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removal

    VACUOLES

    13

    removal �Contains water

    solution �Contractile vacuoles

    for water removal (in unicellular organisms)

  • �Tubular network fused to nuclear membrane

    �Stores, separates,

    ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

    14

    �Stores, separates, and serves as cell's transport system

    �Smooth type

    �Rough type

  • �Protein factories

    �Composes 25% of cell's mass

    RIBOSOMES

    15

    �Composes 25% of cell's mass

    �Stationary type: embedded in rough endoplasmic reticulum

    �Mobile type: injects proteins directly into cytoplasm

  • �A membrane structure found near nucleus

    �Composed of numerous layers

    GOLGI APPARATUS

    16

    numerous layers forming a sac

    �Protein 'packaging plant‘ �process according to

    specific needs and then send their destinations

  • � Digestive 'plant' for

    proteins, l ipids, and

    carbohydrates

    � Transports undigested

    LYSOSOME

    17

    � Transports undigested

    material to cell membrane

    for removal

    � Vary in shape depending on

    process being carried out

    � Cell breaks down if

    lysosome explodes

  • �Composed of microtubules

    �Supports cell and provides shape

    CYTOSKELETON

    18

    provides shape

    �Aids movement of materials in and out of cells

  • � Paired cylindrical organelles near nucleus

    � Composed of nine tubes, each with three tubules

    � Involved in cellular division

    � Lie at right angles to each other

    CENTRIOLES

    19

  • � Spherical shape

    � Visible when cell is not dividing

    � Contains RNA for protein manufacture

    NUCLEOLUS

    20

  • � Surrounds nucleus

    � Composed of two layers

    � Numerous openings for nuclear traffic

    NUCLEAR MEMBRANE

    21

  • � Usually in the form of chromatin

    � Contains genetic information

    � Composed of DNA

    � Thicken for cellular division

    � Set number per species (i.e. 23 pairs for human)

    CHROMOSOMES

    22

    � Set number per species (i.e. 23 pairs for human)

  • DNA

    �DNA, or deoxyribonucleic

    acid, is the hereditary material

    in humans and almost all other

    23

    in humans and almost all other

    organisms.

    �Nearly every cell in a person’s

    body has the same DNA.

  • DNA

    �Most DNA is located in the

    cell nucleus (where it is

    called nuclear DNA), but a

    small amount of DNA can

    24

    small amount of DNA can

    also be found in the

    mitochondria (where it is

    called mitochondrial

    DNA or mtDNA).

  • � The information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T).

    25

    � Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, and more than 99% of those bases are the same in all people.

  • � DNA bases pair up with each other, A with T and C with G, to

    form units called base pairs.

    CONTI……..

    26

    � Each base is also attached to a sugar molecule and a phosphate

    molecule.

    � Together, a base, sugar, and phosphate are called a nucleotide.

  • � Nucleotides are arranged in two long strands that form a

    spiral called a double helix.

    CONTI…….

    27

    � The structure of the double helix is somewhat like a ladder,

    with the base pairs forming the ladder’s rungs and the sugar

    and phosphate molecules forming the vertical side pieces of

    the ladder.

  • 28

  • � DNA can replicate, or make copies of itself.

    � Each strand of DNA in the double helix can serve as a pattern

    for duplicating the sequence of bases.

    CONTI……

    29

    � This is critical when cells divide because each new cell needs

    to have an exact copy of the DNA present in the old cell.

  • �Basic physical and functional unit of heredity.

    �Segments of DNA located on chromosomes.

    GENES

    30

    �Genes act as instructions to make molecules called proteins.

    � In humans, genes vary in size from a few hundred DNA bases to more than 2 million bases.

  • CHROMOSOME

    31

    Genes are made up of DNA. Each chromosome contains many genes.

  • � Every person has two copies of each gene, one inherited from each parent.

    � Most genes are the same in all people, but a small number of genes (less than 1% of the total) are slightly

    CONTI…….

    32

    number of genes (less than 1% of the total) are slightly different between people.

    � Alleles are forms of the same gene with small differences in their sequence of DNA bases. These small differences contribute to each person’s unique physical features.

  • �DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes.

    �Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly

    CHROMOSOME

    33

    �Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.

  • �Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.”

    �The short arm of the chromosome is labelled the “p

    CONTI………

    34

    �The short arm of the chromosome is labelled the “p arm.”

    �The long arm of the chromosome is labelled the “q arm.”

    �The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.

  • 35DNA and histone proteins are packaged into structures called chromosomes.

  • �Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing.

    �DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly

    CONTI…….

    36

    �DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope.

    �Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.

  • � Euchromatin, which consists of DNA that is active, e.g., being

    expressed as protein.

    � Heterochromatin, which consists of mostly inactive DNA. It

    CONTI……..

    37

    � Heterochromatin, which consists of mostly inactive DNA. It

    seems to serve structural purposes during the chromosomal

    stages. Heterochromatin can be further distinguished into two

    types:

    � Constitutive heterochromatin, which is never expressed. It is located

    around the centromere.

    � Facultative heterochromatin, which is sometimes expressed.

  • 38

  • � In humans, each cell normally contains 23 pairs of

    chromosomes, for a total of 46.

    � Twenty -two of these pairs, called autosomes.

    CONTI……