Cell Structure

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Transcript of Cell Structure

  • 1.Cellular Structure Cell Biology / Genetics Mr. Foster

2. Components of Cells

  • Nucleus -
  • 2. Outer Boundary-
  • 3.Cytoplasm / Organelles -cellular contentsandspecialized structures that carry out functions of the cell

3. Nucleus

  • Prokaryote - cell w/o nucleus
    • (DNA in neucleoid)
  • Eukaryote - cell with nucleus
  • Functions
    • Contains genetic inform.
    • Control Center- directs all cellular activity

4. Nucleus (cont.)

  • Structure / Components-
    • Nuclear envelope-regulate what enters and leaves nucleus ( Nuclear pores )
    • Nucleolus -makes ribosomes
    • Genetic Material- DNA
      • Chromatin DNA uncoiled, threadlike,Not Divisional
      • ChromosomesDNA is condensed,Divisional
    • Nucleoplasm-fluid inside nucleus

Clicker ?s 1-5 5. Outer Boundary

  • Cell membrane -lipid bilayer with embedded proteins forming a selective boundary
  • All cells have a cell membrane
  • Cell wall
  • Plants and bacteria

6. Cell Membrane (cont.)

  • Structure- Fluid Mosaic Model
    • Phospholipids
      • Phospholipid bilayer
      • forms membrane

Lipid - does not like H 2 O (hydrophobic) Phosphate - likes H 2 O (hydrophilic) 7.

  • Structure (cont.)
    • 2. Proteins
    • Integral Proteins- embedded in phospholipid bilayer
    • Peripheral protein
    • not embedded in bilayer

Cell Membrane (cont.) Clicker ?s 6-9 8.

  • Structure (cont.)
    • 3.Carbohydrates- attach to proteins (glycoprotein) or lipids (glycolipid)
    • Cell communication
    • recognize cell type

Cell Membrane (cont.) 9.

  • Structure (cont.)
  • 4.Cytoskeletonsupports the membrane
  • a.microfilaments-strength, anchor cells
  • b.microtubules mvmt.
  • c.intermediate filamentsnot always present, a lot in skin, strong framework
  • (Disease where cells collapse: pg 31)

Cell Membrane (cont.) 10. Cytoskeleton

  • Functions
    • Support and protect cell
    • Communicate with other cells
    • Controls mvmt. of materials in and out of cell.
      • Selectively Permeable

Clicker ?s 10-13 11. Cell Transport

  • Passive energy not required to move material across membrane
    • Diffusion molecules move from high to low concentration to reach equilibrium
    • Osmosis type of diffusion involving H 2 O molecules only

12. Cell Transport (cont.)

  • Active Energy required to move materials across membrane
  • Low to High concentration
    • Ion pumps/Channels - Cl - , Na + , K + , Ca +
    • Endocytosis / Exocytosis
    • membrane forms pockets to
    • move material

13. Ion pumps 14. Endocytosis / Exocytosis Clicker ?s 14-17 15. Cytoplasm / Organelles

  • Cytoplasm space between nucleus and cell membrane
    • Cytosol semitransparent; jellylike substance that surrounds organelles
  • Organelles little organ

16. Organelles

  • Endoplasmic Reticulum-
    • Transports materials through inside of cell
    • Modifies proteins and quality control center
  • Types of ER
    • Rough ER
      • Has ribosome attached
      • Proteins to be sent outside cell
    • Smooth ER
      • No ribosomes
      • Make lipids, detox cell

Smooth or Rough? 17. Organelles (cont.)

  • Ribosome -
    • Synthesize proteins
    • Free vs. attached

18.

  • Mitochondria
    • Provides energy for the cellATP
      • Cellular respiration
    • Own DNA
    • Endosymbiont Theory
      • Free living organism that
      • entered a relationship w/
      • Nucleated cells
    • Inherited from mother only
    • Folds increase surface
    • area

Organelles (cont.) 19. Organelles (cont.)

  • Golgi Apparatus-( Golgi bodies) modifies, sorts, and ships proteins in packages calledvesicles .

Clicker ? 18-22 What is this? 20. Organelles (cont.)

  • Lysosomes
    • Membrane bounded sacs that contain enzymes
    • Clean up cell
    • Lysosomal Storage disease
    • (Tay Sachs)- missing the
    • enzyme that breaks down the
    • lipid that surrounds the nerve
    • cell
    • Buries the nervous system

21. 22.

  • Peroxisomes
    • Sac that contain enzymes
    • that detoxifies harmful
    • products
    • H 2 O 2 H 2 O
    • Alcohol
    • Abundant in liver cells

Organelles (cont.) 23.

  • Centrioles
    • Composed of microtubules
    • Contained in specialized
    • region =centrosome
    • Function in cell division
      • Organize spindle fibers

Organelles (cont.) Clicker ? 23-26