CE 808 Ch 1 Intr to Fire Safety

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Fire Safety

Transcript of CE 808 Ch 1 Intr to Fire Safety

  • 1

    CE 808: Structural Fire


    V. Kodur


    Dept of Civil and Env. Engineering

    Michigan State University


    CE 808 Chap 1 1-2

    Ch. 1: Introduction To Fire Safety

    Fire Problem

    Importance of Fire Safety

    Structural Fire Safety within the Context of Overall

    Fire Safety

    Fire Resistance

    Codes and Standards

    Performance-based Design

  • 2

    CE 808 Chap 1 1-3


    Building fires cause thousands of deaths and billions of

    dollars of damage each year

    Fire risk can be mitigated through conscientious design

    and maintenance

    It is impossible to prevent ALL major building fires

    Fire safety depends on numerous factors:

    Fire prevention, suppression and extinction Successful evacuation of occupants Structural integrity (FOCUS of this course)

    Engineers must ensure fire safety through proper

    selection and design of material & structural systems


    Fire Problem

    Fire Costs in US (Canada)

    Recent data: 2013 (2002)

    Fire incidents: 1.24 million (42753) Fire deaths: 3240 - 97 FF (224 - 2) Fire injuries: ~15,925 61 FF (1067) Direct property losses: - $11.5 b ($1.55 b) Total cost of fire: > $328b (~$7b??)

    Losses caused by fire + cost of fire protection, detection and mitigation Residential fires are the most significant 83% of fire deaths, 27% of fires, 60% of the total $loss

    Residential fires are the most significant

    83% of fire deaths, 27% of fires, 60% of the total $ losses (US) Smoker's material and open flame are the number one

    source of ignition (~ 25% of the total)

  • 3

    CE 808 Chap 1 1-5

    Fire: Age old Problem -

    The Great Fire of London

    2nd September 1666, London, UK

    Within 5 days the city was destroyed by fire

    440 acres consumed, 87 churches, 13 200 homes


    Recent Fire Incidents - USA WTC Disaster Sept. 11, 2001

    Fires - crucial to collapse

    2850 deaths ( > 450 ER)

    Damage ( $10s B) Collapsed/damaged buildings - 40

    Towers standing today! (if no fires)

    The Rhode Island nightclub fire Feb. 20, 2003

    caused by pyrotechnics set off which ignited flammable sound insulation foam in the walls and ceilings surrounding the stage

    100 deaths

    200+ injured

    $175 million offered to victims families Oakland Bridge - April 29, 2007 Gasoline tanker crashed into the bridge Collapse by fire (22 mins) Traffic disruption

    CA Tunnel October 12, 2007

    550 ft long tunnel Burned for 7 hrs 1400C Severe damage Spalling of concrete

    Oakland Bridge Collapse

    Euro Tunnel

  • 4

    CE 808 Chap 1 1-7

    Recent Fire Incidents WTC Buildings Structural Fire Safety

    45,000 liters in each plane 25% Fire balls

    25% Shafts

    50% Consumed in few minutes

    Fire size 3-5 GW Energy nuclear plant

    Fire temperatures 1100 C

    Fires were instrumental Towers would have been standing

    Structural Fire Safety

    CE 808 Chap 1 1-8

    Magnitude of Fire Problem

    Comparison of probability of fire incidents and fire-induced

    collapse in bridges and buildings i,ii

    Bridges Buildings 2000 2012*, 2002**

    Total number of structures 691,060 118,000,000

    Reported fire incidents 4500 480,500

    Probability of a fire breaking out (yearly) 2.27% 29.5%*

    Number of collapsed structures 503 225

    Number of collapsed structures due to

    fire 16


    Probability of collapse due to fire (yearly) 3.1% 12.1%**

    i Naser M.Z., Kodur V.K.R. (2015). A Probabilistic Assessment for Classification of Bridges Against Fire Hazard. Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 76, pp. 6573. ii Kodur V.K.R., Naser M.Z. (2013). Importance Factor for Design of Bridges Against Fire. Engineering Structures, Elsevier, Vol. 54, pp. 207-220.

  • 5

    CE 808 Chap 1 1-9

    Oakland Bridge - April 29, 2007

    Gasoline tanker crashed into a

    pylon on the interchange

    between I-80 and I-880

    8600 gallons of gasoline burnt

    to a temperature 1100C.

    Continuous fire softened the

    bolted connections

    The result is clean breaks at

    the connections

    Severe structural damage

    Severe traffic delay

    Losses Millions of dollars

    Clean breaks at the connection due to fire exposure Oakland Bridge Collapse

    Recent Fire Incidents Infrastructure

    CE 808 Chap 1 1-10

    Tunnel in California - Oct 12, 2007

    Two trucks collided 30 trucks & passenger cars Burned 7 hrs 1400C Severe damage

    Deaths (3) & Injuries (10)

    Thermal spalling

    Spalling depth (concrete


    HSC Permeability - low

    Major repairs damages

    Fire-Induced Spalling of Concrete Tunnel in California

    Recent Fire Incidents Infrastructure

  • 6

    Recent Fire Incidents - Europe

    Apr. 13, 2009: Hostel fire, Kamie Pomorski, Poland, 21 died

    DELFT Faculty of Architecture Bldg - May 13, 2008

    13 storey RC building, collapsed - 7 hrs

    Aug. 18, 2007: Newquay, UK, Penhallow Hotel Fire, 3 deaths. Hotel collapsed.

    Apr. 15. 2005: Paris Opera Hotel , France, 24 deaths

    Feb. 12, 2005: Windsor Tower Fire, Madrid, Spain. Partial collapse - Demolished

    Nov. 24, 2003: Fire in Student Hostel due to Electrical Fault, Moscow, Russia. 36 deaths.

    May 15, 2003: Hotel in La Plaine district, Marseilles, France, 10 deaths

    April 18, 2002: A plane crashed into the upper floors of the 30-story Pirelli Tower in Milan, Italy, 3 deaths.

    December 2001: Home for elderly people, Buccino, South Italy, 21 deaths.

    Nov. 18, 96 - Euro Tunnel Fire

    Severe damage, concrete spalling - Major repairs (50 M)

    Fire in Technical University of Delft,

    Architecture Building

    CE 808 Chap 1 1-12

    Euro Tunnel Fire - Nov 96

    Burned 8 h 1000C Severe damage

    Injuries (8), services (50M)

    Thermal spalling RC tunnel rings (100's m) Av. depth 10-20 cm

    Strength - 80~100 MPa Permeability - low

    Major repairs damages

    2007 Another fire in Tunnel

    Fire-Induced Spalling of HSC Tunnel

    Lining & Buckling of reinforcement in Channel

    Tunnel due to Fire on Nov 18, 1996

    Recent Fire Incidents Material Problems

  • 7

    Recent Fire Incidents in China Nov. 15, 2010: Res Building, Shanghai, 54 deaths.

    Nov. 5, 2010: Jinlin Mall, Jilin, 19 deaths.

    Aug. 10, 2009: Jiahe Tower, Hong Kong, 4 deaths.

    Feb. 9, 2009: CCTV Tower Fire, Beijing, 1 death,

    163.8 million RMB losses.

    Sep. 14, 2006: Fuyin Mall, Huzhou, Zhejiang, 15


    Dec. 15, 2005: Liaoyuan Hospital Fire, Jilin, 40


    Jun. 10, 2005: Huanan Hotel, Shantou, Guangdong,

    31 deaths.

    Feb. 15, 2004, Zhongbai Mall, Jilin, 53 deaths.

    Nov. 3, 2003: Hengyang Tower, Hunan, building

    collapse, 20 FF deaths.

    Jun. 5, 2001: Nanchang central Kindergarten, Jiangxi,

    13 children deaths.

    CE 808 Chap 1 1-14

    Fire Safety

    Fire - severe conditions Buildings, transit systems Fire safety major design requirement

    loss of life and property

    Fire resistance - structural elements Safe evacuation of occupants & fire personnel Minimize property damage Control spread of fire

    Recent events WTC, Tunnels

    Structural Fire Safety - Fire resistance

  • 8

    CE 808 Chap 1 1-15

    Fire Safety Type of Structures

    Buildings - commercial, industrial, residential

    Outdoor stadium

    Oil platform




    Liquid storage tanks etc.

    CE 808 Chap 1 1-16

    Role of Structures

    Provide comfortable, safe, functional space

    Shelter and Support Resist forces - human and natural:

    Dead Live Wind (hurricane & tornado) Flood Snow Earthquake Thermal Fire

    Primary or Secondary Event

  • 9

    CE 808 Chap 1 1-17

    Fire Safety

    Not possible to prevent ALL fires

    So, designers need to put in-place strategies to minimize the occurrence of fires & consequently reducing their impact on life, property and environment

    Main strategies include providing for: Automatic fire sprinklers - statistics show that sprinklers have

    a very high probability of controlling or extinguishing any fire

    Systems for fire detection and notification of fire service Safe travel paths for the movement of occupants & firefighters Barriers to control the spread of fire & smoke Fire resistant structures - no to collapse prematurely in fire

    To strategize, the designer has the important responsibility to

    properly select, design and use building materials

    CE 808 Chap 1 1-18

    What is Fire Resistance?

    Fire resistance: the property of a material or

    assemblage to withstand fire or give protection

    from it.

    Discussion: As applied to elements of buildings, it is

    characterized by the ability to confine a fire or to

    continue to perform a given structural function, or

    both. [ASTM E176, 1997]

    Note the absence of specification of exposure or time

  • 10

    CE 808 Chap 1 1-19

    Fire Resistant Assemblies

    Provide physical barrier to restrict fire