Canning...CHAPTER 34 Canning and Saving Produce from Your Harvest Since the beginning of time,...

of 11 /11
Canning The information provided here on canning is from my books on aquaponics. I am providing it to you at no cost. If you are interested in learning more, I would encourage you to check out one of books at: http://www.farmyourspace.com/new-book-releases/ Thank you David Dudley

Transcript of Canning...CHAPTER 34 Canning and Saving Produce from Your Harvest Since the beginning of time,...

Page 1: Canning...CHAPTER 34 Canning and Saving Produce from Your Harvest Since the beginning of time, preserving food was a necessity. The process could take considerable time and energy,

Canning

The information provided here on canning is from my books on aquaponics.

I am providing it to you at no cost.

If you are interested in learning more, I would encourage you to check out one of books at:

http://www.farmyourspace.com/new-book-releases/

Thank you

David Dudley

Page 2: Canning...CHAPTER 34 Canning and Saving Produce from Your Harvest Since the beginning of time, preserving food was a necessity. The process could take considerable time and energy,

C H A P T E R 3 4

Canning and Saving Produce from Your Harvest

Since the beginning of time, preserving food was a necessity. The process could take considerable time and energy, but could mean survival during harsh sea-sons if food was scarce. Early methods of preservation included drying, smoking, fermenting, or cooling/freezing foods. Later methods were pickling in an acid (such as vinegar), curing with salts, and using honey and sugar to make jams and jellies. However, besides the time invested, these approaches can be unhealthy. Either the process itself causes harm to the food (i.e. the smoking process generates carcinogens), or the process involves adding enormous amounts of unhealthy compounds, such as sugar and salt. So the search continued for methods with more reli-ability, ease of storage and transport, and increased health benefits.

Napoleon Bonaparte himself catalyzed the search for a better food preservation method in the late 1700’s as a way to better feed his armies, offering a fortune to anyone who developed a method of preserving food on a large scale. In 1810 Nicholas Appert succeeded, but it wasn’t until 1858 when John Mason invented the iconic, reusable “Mason Jar” that Appert’s “canning” method trickled down to the average family. (Glatz)

Canning is the process of applying heat to food that’s sealed in a glass jar in order to destroy any microorganisms that can cause food spoilage. Proper canning techniques stop this natural spoilage by heat-ing the food for a specific period of time and killing these unwanted microorganisms. During this process, air is removed from the jar and a vacuum is formed as the jar cools and seals. The seal then protects the food from new microorganisms entering and from oxidization from the air. After this, the food can be conveniently stored and enjoyed at a later date.

Canning became a way of life and common in nearly every household. That is until the arrival of our modern grocery stores, pre-packaged foods, additives and preservatives. Now the art of food preservation has been lost to the vast majority of people, as has its numerous benefits. Fortunately, interest in food pres-ervation, especially canning, is growing and is seeing

FIGURE 257. Canned vegetables.

4 03

Page 3: Canning...CHAPTER 34 Canning and Saving Produce from Your Harvest Since the beginning of time, preserving food was a necessity. The process could take considerable time and energy,

Pa r t V I : O P e r at I O n a n d M a I n t e n a n c e

a resurgence of popularity. The following benefits are worth considering, despite the initial investment of time and money (due to buying jars, a canner, etc.).

HealthWhen you grow and can your own food, you know exactly what you are eating. You can be assured that the food was fresh and high quality, and are able to harvest at the peak of ripeness to help preserve the vitamins and minerals. You will also be enjoying food that is free from harmful additives, preser-vatives and BPA, which is found in most of today’s factory-produced foods.

Preserve harvestOne way to make the best of a bountiful garden is to preserve the food by canning. It’s quite common that everything in a garden becomes harvest ready at once. Canning what you won’t immediately consume is a sensible way to avoid waste and enjoy your produce year-round, even in the off-season.

If you’re not a gardener, canning makes it worth the trip to pick organic fruit in an orchard or local farm to get a bushel of organic vegetables. Canning the produce means you can take advantage of these in-season fruits and vegetables and extend their sea-son beyond the growing season, all while supporting local farmers.

Quality tasteHomemade food simply tastes better. You can’t beat a quality home-canned product made from fresh, locally grown ingredients. Another benefit is that you’ll be able to tweak recipes to your exact tastes and even experiment with new flavor combinations, leav-ing you with a tastier product stocked in your pantry.

Save money One very good reason to preserve food by canning is to save money. When you grow your own food, buy in bulk, and take advantage of the plentiful seasons

you will easily save money without compromising the quality of the food on your table. Store bought food is expensive. In the store, you could easily pay double over the cost for canning the same product, and you’ll have healthier, tastier, quality foods in your pantry.

Prepare for bad economic times With recent economically trying times, many people are worried about the future. If something drastic happens to our economy or our ability to affordably purchase food, people want and need to be prepared. Learning to can is just one of the steps people can choose. While freezing is also a healthy option, you have to use energy to keep it stored. And if there should be a power outage you run the risk of losing what you have frozen. In the event of a natural disas-ter you will be self-reliant if you have a pantry full of food that you have canned.

Eco friendlyCanning your own food reduces the environmental impact to a minimum.

If the food is home grown, you remove the emis-sions pollution caused by the transportation miles from the farm, to the factory, and then to the distrib-utor and local stores. Canning also reduces the waste associated with pre-packed foods since canning jars are reusable and will last for years.

Sentimental connection / giftsMany people enjoy canning because of the power-ful connection to the past — to family or culture. Additionally, canned foods make great gifts. The work and care that went into homemade food products is worth much more than the food itself. Although hard to quantify, the satisfaction that you gain from canning your own food can be one of the most sig-nificant benefits.

Regardless of your motivation, the benefits of can-ning are too numerous to ignore. Now you just need to find the resolve to learn and begin canning. Your

4 0 4

Page 4: Canning...CHAPTER 34 Canning and Saving Produce from Your Harvest Since the beginning of time, preserving food was a necessity. The process could take considerable time and energy,

c h a P t e r 3 4 : c a n n I n g a n d S aV I n g P r O d u c e f r O M Y O u r h a r V e S t

first step is to find a few good recipes. It is always best to use those from reliable, tested resources to ensure safety and quality in the outcome. Then prepare the appropriate supplies, depending on your method.

Based on the acidity level in the food you are planning to can, you decide which canning method to use. Although you may hear of various canning methods, only two are approved by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) — water-bath canning and pressure canning. Remember, older canning methods are unreliable and, for that reason, aren’t used or recommended today for home-canning. Occasionally, these methods are said to be faster and easier, but using other methods is questionable to your food safety. Although there are many things you can preserve, understanding the two approved canning techniques and when to use them will help you to get started.

Preserving of High-Acid-FoodsWater-bath canning, also referred to as hot water canning, uses a large kettle of boiling water. Filled jars are submerged in the water and heated to an internal temperature of 212 degrees for a specific period of

time. Use this method for processing high-acid foods, such as fruit, jams, jellies and other fruit spreads, pickles, pickled food, salsas and tomatoes.

To begin, you need the following items:

y Boiling water bath canner or a large, deep sauce-pot with a lid, and a rack

y Glass preserving jars, lids and bands (always start with new lids)

y Common kitchen utensils, such as wooden spoon, ladle and wide-mouth funnel

y Fresh produce and other quality ingredients y Jar lifter (optional, but helpful)

Water-Bath Canning Instructions1. Read through recipe and instructions. Assemble

equipment and ingredients. Follow guidelines for recipe preparation, jar size, preserving method and processing time.

2. Check jars, lids and bands for proper functioning. Jars with nicks, cracks, uneven rims or sharp edges may prevent sealing or cause jar breakage. The underside of lids should not have scratches

FIGURE 258. Boyer. RebuildingFreedom.org, 2016.

4 05

Page 5: Canning...CHAPTER 34 Canning and Saving Produce from Your Harvest Since the beginning of time, preserving food was a necessity. The process could take considerable time and energy,

Pa r t V I : O P e r at I O n a n d M a I n t e n a n c e

or uneven or incomplete sealing compound as this may prevent sealing. Bands should fit on jars. Wash jars, lids and bands in hot, soapy water. Rinse well. Dry bands.

3. Heat home canning jars in hot water, not boil-ing, until ready for use. * Fill a large saucepan or stockpot half-way with water. Place jars in water (filling jars with water from the saucepan will prevent flotation). Bring to a simmer over medium heat. Keep jars hot until ready for use. Keeping jars hot prevents them from breaking when hot food is added. Leave lids and bands at room temperature for easy handling.

4. Prepare boiling water bath canner by filling half-full with water and keep water at a simmer while covered with lid until jars are filled and placed in canner. Be sure your rack in resting on the rim of the canner or on the bottom, depending on the type of rack you are using. Most kitchens have pots that can double as boiling water bath canners, which is simply a large, deep saucepot equipped with a lid and a rack. The pot must be large enough to fully surround and immerse the jars in water by 1 to 2 inches and allow for the water to boil rapidly with the lid on. If you don’t have a rack designed for home preserving, use a cake cooling rack or extra bands tied together to cover the bottom of the pot.

5. Remove hot jar from hot water, using a Jar Lifter or tongs, emptying water inside jar. Fill jar one at a time with prepared food using a wide-mouthed funnel leaving headspace recommended in rec-ipe (1/4 inch for soft spreads such as jams and jellies and fruit juices; 1/2 inch for fruits, pickles, salsa, sauces, and tomatoes). Remove air bub-bles, if stated in recipe, by sliding rubber spatula between the jar and food to release trapped air and ensure proper headspace during processing. Repeat around jar 2 to 3 times.

6. Clean jar rim and threads of jar using a clean, damp cloth to remove any food residue. Center

lid on jar allowing sealing compound to come in contact with the jar rim. Apply band and adjust until fit is fingertip tight. Place filled jars in canner until recipe is used or canner is full. Lower rack with jars into water. Make sure water covers jars by 1 to 2 inches.

7. Place lid on water bath canner. Bring water to a full rolling boil. Begin processing time.

8. Process jars in the boiling water for the processing time indicated in tested preserving recipe. When processing time is complete, turn off the heat and remove the canner lid. Allow jars to stand in canner for 5 minutes to get acclimated to the outside temperature.

9. Remove jars from canner and set upright on a towel to prevent jar breakage that can occur from temperature differences. Leave jars undis-turbed for 12 to 24 hours. Bands should not be retightened as this may interfere with the seal-ing process.

10. Check jar lids for seals, ensuring lids do not flex up and down when center is pressed. Remove bands. Try to lift lids off with your fingertips. If the lid cannot be lifted off, the lid has a good seal. If a lid does not seal within 24 hours, the product can be immediately reprocessed or refrigerated. Clean jars and lids. Label then store in a cool, dry, dark place up to 1 year.

Preserving of Low-Acid-FoodsLow-acid foods are easy to preserve, yet require special handling to eliminate the risk of spoilage caused by the bacteria Clostridium botulium and its toxin-producing spores. Pressure canning uses a large kettle that produces steam in a locked compart-ment. The filled jars in the kettle reach an internal temperature of 240 degrees (eliminating the risk of foodborne bacteria) under a specific pressure (stated in pounds) that’s measured with a dial gauge or weighted gauge on the pressure-canner cover. Use a pressure canner for processing vegetables and other

4 0 6

Page 6: Canning...CHAPTER 34 Canning and Saving Produce from Your Harvest Since the beginning of time, preserving food was a necessity. The process could take considerable time and energy,

c h a P t e r 3 4 : c a n n I n g a n d S aV I n g P r O d u c e f r O M Y O u r h a r V e S t

low-acid foods, such as meat, poultry, and seafood, vegetables, soups, stews, stocks, or when you’re mixing high acid foods with low-acid foods.

To begin, you need the following items:

y Pressure canner y Glass preserving jars, lids and bands (always start with new lids)

y Common kitchen utensils, such as wooden spoon, ladle and wide-mouth funnel

y Fresh vegetables, meat, poul-try or seafood and other quality ingredients

y Jar lifter (optional, but helpful)

Pressure Canning Instructions1. Read through recipe and instructions. Assemble

equipment and ingredients. Follow guidelines for recipe preparation, jar size, preserving method and processing time.

2. Check jars, lids and bands for proper functioning. Jars with nicks, cracks, uneven rims or sharp edges may prevent sealing or cause jar breakage. The underside of lids should not have scratches or uneven or incomplete sealing compound as this may prevent sealing. Bands should fit on jars. Wash jars, lids and bands in hot, soapy water. Rinse well. Dry bands.

3. Heat home canning jars in hot water, not boil-ing, until ready for use. * Fill a large saucepan or stockpot half-way with water. Place jars in water (filling jars with water from the saucepan will prevent flotation). Bring to a simmer over medium heat. Keep jars hot until ready for use. Keeping jars hot prevents them from breaking when hot food is added. Leave lids and bands at room temperature for easy handling.

4. Prepare for pressure canning. Fill the pressure canner with 2 to 3 inches of water. Place over medium-high heat. Bring to a simmer. Keep water at a simmer until jars are filled and placed in canner. Follow manufacturer’s instructions for usage instructions.

5. Remove hot jar from hot water, using a Jar Lifter, emptying water inside jar. Fill jar one at a time with prepared food using a wide-mouthed fun-nel leaving headspace recommended in recipe. Remove air bubbles, if stated in recipe, by sliding a rubber spatula between the jar and food to release trapped air and ensure proper headspace during processing. Repeat around jar 2 to 3 times.

6. Clean rim and threads of the jar using a clean, damp cloth to remove any food residue. Center lid on jar allowing sealing compound to come in contact with the jar rim. Apply band and adjust until fit is fingertip tight. Place filled jars in canner until recipe is used or canner is full. Check that

FIGURE 259. Boyer & Chase. Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia Tech, and Virginia State University, 2016.

4 07

Page 7: Canning...CHAPTER 34 Canning and Saving Produce from Your Harvest Since the beginning of time, preserving food was a necessity. The process could take considerable time and energy,

Pa r t V I : O P e r at I O n a n d M a I n t e n a n c e

water level is about 2 to 3 inches high or that recommended in manufacturer’s manual.

7. Lock the pressure canner lid in place, leaving vent pipe open. Adjust heat to medium-high. Allow steam to escape through vent pipe. Once there is a steady stream of steam escaping, vent for 10 minutes to ensure there is no air (only steam) left in canner. Close vent using weight or method described for your canner. Gradually adjust heat to achieve and maintain recommended pounds of pressure.

8. Process canning jars at the recommended pounds pressure for the processing time indicated in tested preserving recipe. Cool pressure can-ner by removing from heat. Do not remove the weighted gauge. Let canner stand undisturbed until pressure returns to zero naturally. Follow manufacturer’s instructions. Wait 10 minutes. Remove weight and unlock lid, tilting away from yourself. Wait 10 more minutes to allow jars to begin to cool.

9. Remove jars from pressure canner and set upright on a towel to prevent jar breakage that can occur from temperature differences. Leave jars undis-turbed for 12 to 24 hours. Bands should not be retightened as this may interfere with the seal-ing process.

10. Check lids for seals. Lids should not flex up and down when center is pressed. Remove bands. Try to lift lids off with your fingertips. If the lid cannot be lifted off, the lid has a good seal. If a lid does not seal within 24 hours, the product can be immediately refrigerated. Clean canning jars and lids. Label and store in a cool, dry, dark place up to 1 year.

* After many years of research, it was determined that preheating lids is no longer necessary. The sealing compound used for our home canning lids performs equally well at room temperature as it does pre-heated in simmering water (180 degrees Fahrenheit). Simply wash lids in hot, soapy water, dry, and set aside until needed.

Other food preservation methodsWhile canning reaps the most benefits overall of the food preservation methods, it’s important to note two other healthy methods of preserving food.

Freezing FoodFreezing is likely the healthiest method of food pres-ervation because it preserves more nutrients than heating methods. Freezing foods is the art of pre-paring, packaging, and freezing foods at their peak of freshness. You can freeze most fresh fruits and vegetables, meats and fish, along with baked items and clear soups and casseroles. The keys to freezing food are to make sure it’s absolutely fresh, that you freeze it as quickly as possible, and that you keep it at a proper frozen temperature (0 degrees).

Properly packaging food in freezer paper or freezer containers prevents any deterioration in its quality. Damage occurs when your food comes in contact with the dry air of a freezer. Although freezer-damaged food won’t hurt you, it does make the food taste bad.

To avoid freezer burn: y Reduce exposure to air by wrapping your food tightly

y Avoid fluctuating temperatures by keeping the freezer closed if possible

y Don’t overfill your freezer, which could reduce air circulation and speed freezer damage

4 0 8

Page 8: Canning...CHAPTER 34 Canning and Saving Produce from Your Harvest Since the beginning of time, preserving food was a necessity. The process could take considerable time and energy,

c h a P t e r 3 4 : c a n n I n g a n d S aV I n g P r O d u c e f r O M Y O u r h a r V e S t

Drying foodDrying is the oldest method known for preserving food. When you dry food, you expose the food to a temperature that’s high enough to remove the mois-ture but low enough that it doesn’t cook. Good air circulation assists in evenly drying the food.

An electric dehydrator is the best and most effi-cient unit for drying, or dehydrating, food. Today’s

units include a thermostat and fan to help regulate temperatures much better. You can also dry food in your oven or by using the heat of the sun, but the process will take longer and produce inferior results to food dried in a dehydrator.

4 0 9

Page 9: Canning...CHAPTER 34 Canning and Saving Produce from Your Harvest Since the beginning of time, preserving food was a necessity. The process could take considerable time and energy,
Page 10: Canning...CHAPTER 34 Canning and Saving Produce from Your Harvest Since the beginning of time, preserving food was a necessity. The process could take considerable time and energy,

CONTENTS

Dedication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iAcknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iiiNote to Reader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vIntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Part I Aquaponic Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Chapter 1 Aquaponics Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Chapter 2 Benefits of Aquaponics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Chapter 3 History of Aquaponics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13Chapter 4 Aquaponics Globally and the Big Picture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15Chapter 5 Toxic Food vs . Healthy Organic Aquaponic Food . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37Chapter 6 The Different Types of Aquaponic Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63Chapter 7 Aquaponics for You . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67Chapter 8 Location, Location, Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71Chapter 9 Nitrogen Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

Part II Plants and Fish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83Chapter 10 Plants/Crops — Keys to Success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85Chapter 11 Fish — Everything You Need to Know . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103Chapter 12 Fish Feed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

Part III Components Used in Aquaponics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137Chapter 13 Equipment & Component Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139Chapter 14 Plumbing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147Chapter 15 Fish Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161Chapter 16 Liner Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173Chapter 17 Making a Water Tight Container . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177Chapter 18 Growing Media for Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181Chapter 19 Pumps & Choosing the Right Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187Chapter 20 Filtration (Mechanical, Biofiltration, Natural) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191Chapter 21 Greenhouses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201Chapter 22 Alternative Energy Options & Operating Off-The-Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

Page 11: Canning...CHAPTER 34 Canning and Saving Produce from Your Harvest Since the beginning of time, preserving food was a necessity. The process could take considerable time and energy,

Part IV N .F .T . & D .W .C . Design and Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233Chapter 23 Nutrient Film Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235Chapter 24 Deep Water Culture / Raft System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

Part V Flood-and-Drain System Design and Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265Chapter 25 Flood-and-Drain System Instructions & Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267Chapter 26 Media Grow Bed Drain Options, Drawings, and Information . . . . . . . . . . . . 291Chapter 27 How to Make a Auto Siphon (Bell Siphon) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299Chapter 28 Design Plans and Construction Details DIY Flood-and-Drain System . . . . . 307Chapter 29 Design Plans and Construction Details Using IBC Containers Flood-and-Drain

System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321

Part VI Operation and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .343Chapter 30 Starting, Operating, and Troubleshooting Your Aquaponic System . . . . . . . 345Chapter 31 Water Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361Chapter 32 Fish Breeding, Fish Reproduction, and Raising Your Own Crop of Fish . . . . 381Chapter 33 Greenhouse Energy Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391Chapter 34 Canning and Saving Produce from Your Harvest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403

Part VII Making Money and Earning a Profit from Aquaponics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411Chapter 35 Cost-Benefit Analysis (Aquaponic Economics) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413Chapter 36 Creating a Profitable Aquaponics Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417Chapter 37 Selling Your Aquaponic Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445Chapter 38 Bartering Your Aquaponic Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471Chapter 39 Marketing and Selling Fish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475Chapter 40 Sales & Selling: Being Successful . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485Chapter 41 Customer Service Recommendations and Rewards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499Chapter 42 Time Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507Chapter 43 Budgeting: Making and Sticking to a Budget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519Chapter 44 Prioritize: The Art of Prioritizing and Getting More Accomplished . . . . . . . 525Chapter 45 Encouragement & Keys to Success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531Chapter 46 Aquaponics Business Plan (A Real-World ‘Go-By’ Example) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537

Part VIII Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .575Appendix 1 Aquaponic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577Appendix 2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581Appendix 3 Vendors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585Appendix 4 Other Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589Appendix 5 Aquaponics for Profit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591Appendix 6 Business and Entrepreneur Success Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595Appendix 7 Country Breeze Farm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 597Appendix 8 Recommended Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601Appendix 9 Health and Life Protection Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605Appendix 10 Conversion Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607