Can Positive Emotion Induction Reduce Negative Reactions among Adolescents Cyberbullying Victims?...

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Transcript of Can Positive Emotion Induction Reduce Negative Reactions among Adolescents Cyberbullying Victims?...

  • Slide 1
  • Can Positive Emotion Induction Reduce Negative Reactions among Adolescents Cyberbullying Victims? YeoJu Chung, Associate Professor, Korea National University of Education Kyunghee Du, JaMyoung Yi, & A-ra Lee
  • Slide 2
  • Contents Introduction Literature Review Research Hypothesis Method & Procedure Results Discussion & Conclusion
  • Slide 3
  • Introduction & Literature Review
  • Slide 4
  • Purpose Cyberbullying is increasing and one of counseling issues Victims of cyber bullying depressive, anxious, sensitive, cautious, and react to a ggression, feelings of being ostracized and of loneliness, or sometimes suicide the importance of positive affect has been stressed in co unseling area Functions of enhancing positive affects have been focus ed also by some emotion researchers (e.g. Fredrickson, 1998; Fredrickson & Levenson, 1998). how to solve cyberbullying problem inducing positive affects will reduce negative psycholo gical effects from cyberbullying
  • Slide 5
  • Literature Review - Bullying What is Bullying? (Olweus, 1993, 1999a) Aggressive behavior or intentional harmdoing Repeated and over time action An imbalance of power in an interpersonal relationship Someone intentionally inflicts, or attempts to inflict, and show aggressive behaviors Verbal vs. Nonverbal Verbal actions: threatening, taunting, teasing, and calling namesVerbal actions: threatening, taunting, teasing, and calling names Nonverbal actions: hitting, pushing, kicking, pinching, and restrainingNonverbal actions: hitting, pushing, kicking, pinching, and restraining
  • Slide 6
  • Literature Review Cyber Bullying What is Cyber Bullying? Bullying that involves the use of e-mail, instant messaging, text digital imaging messages and digital images sent via cellular phones, Web pages, Web logs(blogs), chat rooms or discussion groups, and other information communication technologies (Health Resources and Services Administration, 2006; Patchin & Hinduja, 2006; Shariff & Gouin, 2005; Willard, 2006)
  • Slide 7
  • Literature Review Cyber Bullying Flaming: online fi ghts using electro nic messages with angry and vulgar l anguage Harassment: repe atedly sending na sty, mean, and ins ulting messages Denigration: sendi ng or posting goss ip about a person to damage reputa tion or friendships Impersonation: pr etending to be so meone else and se nding or posting material Outing: sharing p ersonal informatio n with others Exclusion: intenti onally excluding s omeone from an o nline group Cyberstalking: rep eated, intense har assment including threats What is Cyber Bullying? Nancy Willard, 2006 Kowalski, Limber, and Agatston, 2008
  • Slide 8
  • Literature Review Cyber Bullying Cyber Bullying Passes Current 7% 4% National Childrens Home (NCH, 2002) Study: 7% via Internet chat rooms, and 4% through e-mail 57% Keith and Martin (2004): 57% of students said that someone had said hurtful or angry things to them online 19% Ybarra and Mitchell (2004a): 19% of young regular Internet users aged 10-17 were involved in online harassment 22% British study (Smith, Mahdavi, Carvalho, & Tippett, 2006): 22% of the students aged 11-16 reported that they had been bullied in the cyber space at least once in the two months 21% Williams and Guerra (2006): 21% of the students had ever been cyber bullied 53% Afrabs (2006) study: 53% of the respondents said that they had been bullied online 42.9% Chung and Kim (2013): 42.9% of total students(n=1112) have experienced cyberbullying before
  • Slide 9
  • Literature Review Cyber Bullying Cyber bullying - More Harmful No punishment or social disapproval due to anonymityNo punishment or social disapproval due to anonymity Can carry their actions much more than they normally w ould (Williams, Harkins, and Latane,1981)Can carry their actions much more than they normally w ould (Williams, Harkins, and Latane,1981) Lose Power of Inhibition targets also cannot see the faces of the perpetratortargets also cannot see the faces of the perpetrator miscommunication between bullies and victims (Kowalski, Limber, and Agatston, 2008)miscommunication between bullies and victims (Kowalski, Limber, and Agatston, 2008) Cant See Emotional Reaction A single act may be forwarded to hundreds or thousands of children over a period of timeA single act may be forwarded to hundreds or thousands of children over a period of time Feel repeatedly bulliedFeel repeatedly bullied Cant predict Repetition
  • Slide 10
  • Literature Review Cyber Bullying Depressed mood, loneliness, anxiety, frustration, in visibility, and helplessness (Geller, Goodstein, Silver, and Sternberg, 1974; Leary, 1990)Depressed mood, loneliness, anxiety, frustration, in visibility, and helplessness (Geller, Goodstein, Silver, and Sternberg, 1974; Leary, 1990) Feeling bad, having less control, and losing a sense of belonging (Williams, Cheung, and Choi, 2000)Feeling bad, having less control, and losing a sense of belonging (Williams, Cheung, and Choi, 2000) Feeling a loss of self-esteem and angry (Rigby, 200 8)Feeling a loss of self-esteem and angry (Rigby, 200 8) Victims of Cyber bullying
  • Slide 11
  • Literature Review Focus on affect problems of victims in bullying Affect problems of victims self-evaluation and emotional coping skills (Andreou, 2001) lack of emotional ability to prevent and resolve conflicts (Mahady-Wilton, 1997) symptoms and suicidal thoughts (Roland, 2002) depressed and stressful due to negative self- concept (Marsh, Parada, Craven and Finger, 2004)
  • Slide 12
  • Chung and Kim (2013) What kind of feeling did you have when you are bullied in the cyber space?
  • Slide 13
  • Chung and Kim (2013) Reactions after being cyberbullied only cyberbullied middle school students
  • Slide 14
  • Positive emotions are able to restore the selfs capacity for self-regulati on (Tice et al., 2004) happy mood led to longer persistence and positive mood make people recover their energy that help to regulate themselves further Positive affects recharge the depleted self A primary function of self-regulation in adults is to maintain positive e motional mood and reduce the continued deterioration of negative mo od states (Morris, 1989) Positive affects help self-regulation positive affects serve to broaden an individual's momentary thought-a ction repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual' s physical, intellectual, and social resources (Carver, 2003; Cosmides & Tooby, 2000; Fredrickson, 2005) Positive affects undo effects of negative affects Literature Review Functions of Positive Affect compared to Negative Affect
  • Slide 15
  • Fredrickson and Joiner (2002) assessed the prediction that positive aff ects broaden the scopes of attention and cognition, and, by consequen ce, initiate upward spirals toward increasing emotional well-being Positive affects broaden functions of attention and cognition Positively valenced moods and emotions lead people to think, feel, and act in ways that promote both resource building and involvement with approach goals (Elliot & Thrash, 2002; Lyubomirsky, 2001) Positive affects enhance thought, feeling, and behavior and make us attain the goal Positive affects enhance thought, feeling, and behavior and make us attain the goal Niedenthal and Setterlund (1994) also suggested that happiness and s adness have emotion-congruent effects upon selective perception Mayer and his colleagues (1992) also tested mood-congruent effect in their experiment Positive affects make people remember positive factors Literature Review Functions of Positive Affect compared to Negative Affect
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  • Parkinson and his colleagues (1996) assumed that the world seems a more pleasant and welcoming place when one is in a happy mood Fearful individuals have been shown to have heightened estimates that risky, dangerous events will be part of their future (Lerner & Keltner, 2 001) Positive affects impact on perception and judgement Cohn and his colleagues (2009) suggested that positive affects lead to higher levels of ego resilience in the future Positive affects increase ego resilience Fredrickson (2001) said that the frequent experience of positive emoti on broadens thinking and actions and result in enduring personal reso urces In Aspinwall (1998)s study, he tested that positive mood may play a b eneficial, multifaceted, and flexible role in self-regulatory processes Positive affects enhance coping ability Literature Review Functions of Positive Affect compared to Negative Affect
  • Slide 17
  • Secure attachment and positive maternal control correlated positively with effective regulatory strategy use (Gillom et al., 2002) Frequent positive emotions during school were associated with higher l evels of student engagement and negative emotions with lower levels of engagement (Amy et al., 2008) Positive affects decline externalizing problems low levels of positive affectivity are associated with a number of clinica l syndroms, including social phobia, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, eating disdorder, and the substance disorders (Gillom et al., 2002) Positive affects decline psychopathology good moods increased offers of help that involved reading and evaluati ng statements that participants believed would improve their mood (Is en & Simmond, 1978) Positive affects increase helping behavior Positive affectivity is a significant predictor of job satisfacti