Bun Vaccin

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    VACCINES

    1. Introduction

    2. The Immune System

    3. Subunit & Peptide Vaccines

    4. Attenuated Vaccines

    5. Vector Vaccines

    6. acteria! Anti"en de!i#ery

    systems 1

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    Immunization$ a procedure desi"ned to increaseconcentrations o% antibodies andor e%%ector T'ce!!s (hich are reacti#e a"ainst in%ection )or

    cancer*.

    Immuni+ation procedure ca!!ed #accination and theimmuni+in" a"ent ca!!ed #accine )or ,serum- in

    historica! re%erences*

    VACCINES

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    isco#ery o% Vaccination

    isco#ered in 1/06 by

    r. d(ard enner

    Tested empirica! no(!ed"e$mi!d catt!e disease co(poprotects a"ainst dead!y humandisease sma!!po

    scratchin" !iuid %rom co(posores into the boys sin '7 %u!!protection a"ainst sma!!po

    VACCINES

    Introduction

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    VACCINES

    The Immune system

    Immune System

    Innate

    (Nonspecific)Adaptive

    (Specific)

    Protects/re-exposure

    Cellular Components Humoral Components Cellular Components Humoral Components

    Interactions between the two systems4

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    Innate Immunity Adapti#e Immunity

    Innate #ersus Adapti#e Immunity

    8 9o memory

    8 9o time !a"

    8 9ot anti"en speci%ic

    8 A !a" period

    8 Anti"en speci%ic

    8 e#e!opment o% memory

    VACCINES

    The Immune system

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    VACCINES

    The Immune system

    First-line defense: physical and chemical barrierThe %irst'!ine de%ense inc!udes barriers to in%ection: such as sin and mucus coatin" o% the "ut and air(ays.

    Second-line defense:Phaocytic cellspha"ocytic ce!!s );ye!oid ce!!s* )macropha"es and neutrophi! "ranu!ocytes* can destroy )pha"ocytose* %orei"n

    substances. Pha"ocytosis in#o!#es di"estion o% the bacterium by usin" en+ymes.

    Anti-microbial proteinsAnti'microbia! proteins are acti#ated i% a patho"en passes throu"h the barrier o%%ered by sin. There are se#era!c!asses o% antimicrobia! proteins: such as acute phase proteins )%or eamp!e: proteins that enhance pha"ocytosis*:!yso+yme: and the comp!ement system.

    The comp!ement system is a #ery comp!e "roup o% serum proteins: (hich is acti#ated in a cascade %ashion. Threedi%%erent path(ays are in#o!#ed in comp!ement acti#ation$

    A cascade o% protein acti#ity %o!!o(s comp!ement acti#ation '7 destruction o% the patho"en and in%!ammation

    Inter%erons are a!so anti'microbia! proteins.'7 secreted by #irus'in%ected ce!!s '7 di%%use rapid!y to nei"hborin" ce!!s '7 inhibit the spread o% the #ira! in%ection.

    Innate Immune System

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    The adapti#e immune system: a!so ca!!edthe

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    =e!!s o% the Immune System

    Immune System

    Myeloid Cells Lymphoid Cells

    Granulocytic Monocytic T cells B cells

    Neutrophils

    Basophils

    Eosinophils

    Macrophages

    Kupffer cells

    Dendritic cells

    elper cells

    Suppressor cells

    Cytoto!ic cells

    "lasma cells

    Natural Killer

    cells

    VACCINES

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    e#e!opment o% the Immune System

    VACCINES

    myeloid

    Granulocyte

    lymphoid

    nk

    thymus

    CD8+

    CD4+

    CTL

    T2

    T1

    !onocyte

    "#Cells $

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    The Immune System

    VACCINES

    >hat ?appens durin" an in%ection@

    Innate Immunity acti#ated

    ! macropha"es s!ip bet(een ce!!s etra#asationB to arri#e

    ! cytoine chemica!s attract other ,troops- chemotaisB

    ! histamine chemica!s di!ate b!ood #esse!s %or easier access to inCury#asodi!atationB

    1%

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    The Immune System

    VACCINES

    ;acropha"es )The ,bi" eaters-* Pha"ocytic ce!!s '

    ab!e to in"est sma!! %orei"n in#aders! neutrophi!s! monocyte

    they re!ease cytoines that enhance the immuneresponse

    ;ast ce!!s basophi!s

    ! re!ease histamine that di!ates b!ood #esse!s

    ! causes redness erythremaB: s(e!!in"edemaB: and heat %e#erB

    =a!! %or he!p %rom the AAPTIV I;;D9 System'7 resu!ts in a coordinated success%u! de%ense E

    ;aCor p!ayers . . . the !ymphocytes

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    The Immune System

    VACCINES

    The Adapti#e Immune system

    1. ?umora! immune system$ '7 acts a"ainst bacteria and #iruses usin" immuno"!obu!ins)a!so no(n as antibodies* '7 produced by ce!!s.

    2. =e!!u!ar immune system$ '7 destroys intrace!!u!ar patho"ens )such as #irus'in%ectedce!!s and mycobacteria F causin" tubercu!osis* usin" T ce!!s )a!so ca!!ed

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    The Immune System

    VACCINES

    The Adapti#e Immune system

    Acti#ated ce!!s di%%erentiate into . . .

    ! Antibody producin" ce!!s attac modeB

    !;emory ce!!s remembers & %uture protectionB

    Antigen & T-helper cell

    memory

    antibodies

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    Princip!e o% Vaccination

    VACCINES

    A !accine renders the recipient resistant to infection.

    urin" #accination a #accine is inCected or "i#en ora!!y.

    The host produces antibodies %or a particu!ar patho"en.

    Dpon %urther eposure the patho"en is inacti#ated by theantibodies and disease state pre#ented.

    Henera!!y to produce a #accine the patho"en is "ro(n in cu!tureand inacti!ated or non!irulent%orms are used %or #accination.

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    Immuni+ation$

    >hen per%ormed be%ore eposure to an in%ectious a"ent )orsoon a%ter eposure in certain cases*: it is ca!!edimmunoprophyla"is:

    intended topre!ent the in%ection.

    >hen per%ormed durin" an acti#e in%ection )or eistin" cancer*:it is ca!!ed immunotherapy: intendin" to cure the in%ection )orcancer*

    VACCINES

    Princip!e o% Vaccination

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    Types o% Immunity$

    VACCINES

    Princip!e o% Vaccination

    '7 T(o mechanisms by (hich immuni+ation can be achie#ed

    Passi!e immunization$

    ! Protecti#e Abs ''7 non immune recipient! 9o immuno!o"ica! memory

    Acti!e immunization$! Induction o% adapti#e immune response: (ith protection and

    memory.

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    Passi#e #ersus acti#e immuni+ation$

    VACCINES

    Princip!e o% Vaccination

    -# $%PE AC&'I(E) $*(+',* Passi!e Immunization '7 9atura! materna! serummi!

    '7 Arti%icia! immune serum

    -# $ype AC&'(IE) $*(+',* Acti!e Immunization '7 9atura! in%ection '7 Arti%icia! in%ection$

    Attenuated or"anisms )!i#e* inacti#ated or"anisms )dead* =!oned "enes o% microbio!o"ica! anti"ens Puri%ied microbia! macromo!ecu!es Synthetic peptides 9A

    IArti%icia! re%ers to steps in#o!#in" human inter#ention

    1&

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    ;echanism o% Vaccination$

    VACCINES

    Princip!e o% Vaccination

    stab!ish resistance to #iruspatho!o"ica! or"anism by e#oin" animmune response

    1. Hi#e host a %orei"n or"anismprotein in non'in%ectious %orm '7 acti#e

    immuni+ation

    2. Antibodies are "enerated Ab binds to sur%ace proteins o% or"anism'7 passi#e immuni+ation

    Jther #accination components$8 Ad.u!ant: chemica!s in the #accine so!ution that enhance the immune response

    F A!um F A" in the #accine c!umps (ith the a!um such that the A" is re!eased

    F s!o(!y: !ie a time're!ease capsu!e

    F "i#es more time %or memory ce!!s to %orm

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    Princip!e o% Vaccination

    VACCINES

    $raditional Vaccines:

    ! Hro( in anima!s )#accinia inca!#es %or sma!!poG rabbit

    brains %or rabies*

    ! Simp!e bacteria! cu!ture)=ho!era #ibrio* theninacti#ation

    ! Hro( in e""s )in%!uen+a:#accinia* then inacti#ate

    '1%% million e((s used)or in)luen*a in the ,-

    e.ery year 1$

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    Princip!e o% Vaccination

    VACCINES

    Kimitations To Traditiona! Vaccines$

    '7 canLt "ro( a!! or"anisms in cu!ture

    '7 sa%ety to !ab personne!

    '7 pense

    '7 insu%%icient attentuation )!i#in" a"ent a!tered to becomeharm!ess or !ess #iru!ent*

    '7 re#ersion to in%ectious state

    '7 need re%ri"eration

    '7 do not (or %or a!! in%ectious a"ents

    '7 in%antschi!dren recei#e them F immature immunity 2%

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    Princip!e o% Vaccination

    VACCINES

    9e( Heneration o% Vaccines$

    (ecombinant )NA technoloy is bein" used to produce a ne("eneration o% #accines.

    Virulence enes are deletedand or"anism is sti!! ab!e to stimu!atean immune response.

    /i!e nonpathoenic strainscan carry anti"enic determinants %rompatho"enic strains.

    I% the a"ent cannot be maintained in cu!ture: enes of proteins%or

    anti"enic determinants can be c!oned and epressed in ana!ternati#e host e.". 1. co!i.

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    Princip!e o% Vaccination

    VACCINES

    Mecombinant Vaccines$

    1. Subunit Vaccinespeptide #accinesHenetic immuni+ation

    2. Attenuated Vaccines

    3. Vector Vaccines

    4.acteria! Anti"en e!i#ery Systems'7 "hosts '7 de!i#ery systems )net semester*

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    Princip!e o% Vaccination

    VACCINES

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