Building a Disability-Inclusive Workplace [webinar]

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  • Building a Disability-Inclusive Workplace

    April 15, 2015

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    Susanne Bruyre Director, Employment & Disability Institute (EDI) smb23@cornell.edu

    This webinar is sponsored in part by the Cornell University Employer Practices RRTC funded through a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (Grant No. H133B100017). The contents of the webinar do not necessarily represent the policy of the Department of Education or any other federal agency, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government (Edgar, 75.620 (b)). The views presented are not necessarily endorsed by Cornell University or the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR).

  • Participants Will Learn: What new regulations will require of employers What current data tells us about areas where individuals with

    disabilities perceive the occurrence of workplace exclusion; Workplace policies that contribute to a disability- inclusive

    environment; Types of environments in which employees with disabilities are

    comfortable asking for accommodations and disclosing their disabilities.

    The critical role supervisors play in creating a disability inclusive environment

    How companies can self-assess their effectiveness in moving toward a truly disability-inclusive workplace

    2 2015 Cornell University, ILR School, Employment and Disability Institute

  • The big picture

    Sec.on 503 Who must comply: Employers with federal contract or subcontract of >$10,000 Who has rights: Anyone with a disability as dened by ADAAA

    VEVRAA Who must comply: Employers with federal contract or subcontract of >$100,000 Who has rights: Several categories of veterans, including disabled veterans

    Both Took eect March

    24, 2014 Enforced by OFCCP

    of the US DOL

  • Where do People Perceive Discrimination Occurs?

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  • Most Common Issues Cited on ADA Charges: 2005-2010

    Condition Percent of Charges Discharge 58.4 Reasonable Accommoda7on 28.2 Terms and Condi7ons 19.8 Harassment 14.8 Discipline 8.6 Hiring 6.7

    Note: a charge may cite one or more issues. Von Schrader, S. (2011). Calculations from EEOC Charge Files. RRTC on Employer Practices Related to Employment Outcomes Among Individuals with Disabilities. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, ILR School, Employment and Disability Institute.

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  • Most Common Specific Conditions Cited on ADA charges: 2005-2010 Condition Percent of Charges

    Orthopedic/Structural Back Impairment 9.3 Non-paraly7c Orthopedic Impairment 6.9 Depression 6.0 Diabetes 4.6 Heart/Cardiovascular 3.6 Anxiety Disorder 3.5 Cancer 3.2 Hearing Impairment 3.1 Manic Depression (Bi-Polar) 3.1

    Note: a charge may cite more than one basis. Non-specific conditions were not included in the table: Other Disability 26.7%; Retaliation 17.7%; Regarded as Disabled 12.8% Record of disability 4.8%; Other 3.6%

    Von Schrader, S. (2011). Calculations from EEOC Charge Files. RRTC on Employer Practices Related to Employment Outcomes Among Individuals with Disabilities. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, ILR School, Employment and Disability Institute.

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  • More ADA Charges Cited by Those With Non-obvious Disabilities

    Von Schrader, S. (2011). Calculations from EEOC Charge Files. RRTC on Employer Practices Related to Employment Outcomes Among Individuals with Disabilities. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, ILR School, Employment and Disability Institute. 7

    2015 Cornell University, ILR School, Employment and Disability Institute

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    2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    Per

    cent

    of C

    harg

    es Depression

    Diabetes

    Anxiety disorder

    Bi-Polar/Manic Depression

    PTSD

  • Benefits of Inclusive Climates

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  • Benefits of Inclusive Climates 1. Across multiple samples, data show members of

    historically marginalized groups (e.g., women, ethnic minorities, people with disabilities, aging workers) experience less discrimination and overall better work experiences in inclusive units

    2. The demographic-based differences in experiences of fit, perceived fairness, harassment, engagement perceived organizational support that are commonly seen disappear in inclusive units, thereby enabling better group functioning

    Higher cohesion, better information exchange Less conflict and miscommunication More creative; higher financial performance 9Nishii, L. & Bruyere, S. (2009). Protecting employees with disabilities from discrimination on the job: The role of unit

    managers.

  • Inclusive Climates Three Dimensions

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    Do employment practices perpetuate stereotypes by favoring members of some demographic groups over others?

    In order to buy message of inclusion, employees have to perceive HR practices to be fair

    Fairness of employment practices

    Does the culture value integration of differences or expect assimilation to dominant norms?

    Can employees enact and engage their whole selves? Is there an expectation that everyone is both a teacher and learner?

    Cultural integration of differences

    Are perspectives of diverse workforce actively sought and incorporated into decision making and core operational processes?

    Do employees and managers share a common commitment to working through differences as a source of insight and skill?

    Inclusion in decision-making

    Nishii, L. & Bruyere, S. (2009). Protecting employees with disabilities from discrimination on the job: The role of unit managers.

    2015 Cornell University, ILR School, Employment and Disability Institute

  • Perceptions of HR Practices Perceived fairness of work arrangements and HR

    practices for employee Perceived fairness is significantly lower for employees with

    disabilities, compared to employees without disabilities Biggest differences for perceived fairness of job responsibilities

    and access to valuable mentors Among people with disabilities, perceptions of fairness of HR

    practices were higher when their supervisor(s) had friends with disabilities

    Procedural and interactional justice experienced during accommodation process

    Significantly lower for employees with disabilities Perceptions of interactional justice are more important than

    procedural justice (for predicting commitment and satisfaction)

    11Disability Case Study Research Consortium, 2008. Conducting and Benchmarking Disability Inclusive Employment Policies, Practices, and Procedures. Funded by the Office of Disability Employment Policy of the U.S. Department of Labor, grant/contract #E-9-4-6-0107.

    2015 Cornell University, ILR School, Employment and Disability Institute

  • Perceptions of Climate for Inclusion Fairness of employment practices

    When employees perceive the organization is effective at hiring people with disabilities, supporting disability networks, and including disability in diversity policy, they perceive employment practices to be fairer overall.

    Openness of the work environment Managers perceptions of the openness of the work environment predict discrimination experienced by employees with disabilities.

    Inclusion in decision-making The more inclusive the decision-making environment, the more psychologically empowered employees feel, the more they feel supported and valued by the organization, and the less conflict they experience in their group.

    12Disability Case Study Research Consortium, 2008.

  • Experiences Are Better In Inclusive Units

    Individuals with disabilities who work in inclusive climates report significantly

    Greater success at having their accommodation requests granted

    Greater coworker support of their accommodations Better experiences of procedural and interactional

    justice during accommodations Lower levels of disability harassment/discrimination Higher organizational commitment and satisfaction Lower turnover intentions

    13Nishii, L. & Bruyere, S. (2009). Protecting employees with disabilities from discrimination on the job: The role of unit managers.

  • Experiences Are Better for Employees With Disabilities Who Enjoy High Quality

    Relationships With Their Managers

    Individuals with disabilities who are included in their managers in-group report: Higher fit between skills and demands of job Higher empowerment Fairer treatment during the accommodation process Higher organizational commitment, satisfaction, and

    willingness to engage in citizenship behaviors Lower turnover intentions

    14Nishii, L. & Bruyere, S. (2009). Protecting employees with disabilities from discrimination on the job: The role of unit managers.

    2015 Cornell University, ILR School, Employment and Disability Institute

  • Managers Role is Critical Managers are key to the experiences of persons with

    disabilities in the workplace Managers perceptions of organizational motivation for

    disability inclusion (true inclusion interests rather than legal compliance) positively impacts disability climate

    In both private and federal sectors, disability disclosure most often occurs with the manager or co-workers, rather than with HR, and therefore education and training about how to deal with disability disclosure is imperative to fostering inclusive workplace culture

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    Nishii, L., & Bruyre , S. (2014). Inside the workplace: Case studies of factors infl