Buddhist Monastries

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    The order ofBuddhistmonks and nuns was founded

    byGautama Buddhaduring his lifetime over 2500

    years ago. The Buddhist monastic lifestyle grew outof the lifestyle of earlier sects of wandering ascetics,

    some of whom the Buddha had studied under. It was

    not really isolationist oreremetic: thesanghawas

    dependent on the lay community for basic provisions

    of food and clothing, and in return sangha membershelped guide lay followers on the path ofDharma.

    Individuals or small groups of monks a teacher and

    his students, or several monks who were friends

    traveled together, living on the outskirts of local

    communities and practicing meditation in the forests.

    Monks and nuns were expected to live with a

    minimum of possessions, which were to be voluntarily

    provided by the lay community. Lay followers also

    provided the daily food that monks required, and

    provided shelter for monks when they were needed.

    During the Buddha's time, many retreats and gardens

    were donated by wealthy citizens for monks and nuns

    to stay in during the rainy season. Out of this

    tradition grew two kinds of living arrangements for

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhisthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gautama_Buddhahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eremetichttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanghahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dharma_(Buddhism)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dharma_(Buddhism)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanghahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eremetichttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gautama_Buddhahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhist
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    monastics, as detailed in the Mahavagga section of

    theVinayaand Varsavastu texts:

    1. : a temporary house for monastics calledavihara. Generally more than one monk stayed in

    each house with each monk in his own cell, called

    aparivena.

    2. : a more permanent and morecomfortable arrangement than the avasa. This

    property was generally donated and maintained

    by a wealthy citizen. This was more lavish (as

    suggested by the nameAraamameans

    bothpleasantandpark). It generally consisted of

    residences within orchards or parks.[1]

    One of the more famous Arama isAnathapindika's,

    known asAnathapindikassa arame, built on Prince

    Jeta's grove. It had buildings worth 1.8 million gold

    pieces built in a beautiful grove, with the total gift

    worth 5.4 million gold pieces.

    [2]

    After theparinirvanaof the Buddha, the Buddhist

    monastic order developed into a

    primarilycenobiticmovement. The practice of living

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vinayahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viharahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhist_monasticism#cite_note-0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anathapindikahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anathapindikahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhist_monasticism#cite_note-1http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parinirvanahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cenobitichttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cenobitichttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parinirvanahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhist_monasticism#cite_note-1http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anathapindikahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhist_monasticism#cite_note-0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viharahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vinaya
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    in the bhikkhuni lineage were never established in

    theVajrayanacommunities of Tibet and Nepal;

    Theravada communities formerly existed, but died outbetween the 11th and 14th century. Ordination in

    the bhikkhuni lineage continues to exist among East

    Asian communities, and attempts have been made at

    a revival in Southeast Asia andSri Lanka.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vajrayanahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sri_Lankahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sri_Lankahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vajrayana
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