Buddhism Pt 2

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World Religions class for Jon Kohler's Amarillo College class, Spring 2010.

Transcript of Buddhism Pt 2

  • Buddhism pt. 2
  • Two ways of following the Buddha
    • Theravadin Buddhism
    • Mahayana Buddhism
    • Comparison
  • philosophies within Buddhism
    • The Madhyamika School
    • The Yogacara School
  • Buddhism in Asia:
    • Ashoka (273 B.C.E-232 B.C.E )
    • He saw the suffering of his troops and of those he defeated.
    • 5 actions were done as a result of his observations about suffering.
  • Buddhism in China:
    • Ming Ti
    • Theravadin Buddhism was not well embraced by the Chinese.
  • Buddhism in China:
    • New schools were founded to teach different routes to salvation.
      • Tian Tai (Tyian-Tai) = heavenly Terrace
      • Hua-Yen
      • Jingtu (ching-T U) = pure land Buddhism
      • Chan (ChAN)
  • Buddhism in Japan
    • Around 552 C.E. Buddhism entered Japan
    Shinran
  • Buddhism in Japan
    • Groups of Buddhist spread throughout Japan most of which were centralized around a charismatic leader.
      • Tendai (9th century C.E.)
      • Shingon (9th century C.E.)
      • Jodo
      • Shinran
      • Zen
      • Nichiren
  • Buddhism in Tibet
    • introduced into Tibet around 630 C.E.
    • Tibetan Buddhism has three vows: (1) monastic vows, (2) progressive path of the bodhisattva, (3) esoteric precept of the tantras.
    Dalai Lama
    • Creation happened through pairs of deities who produce the universe by sexual intercourse.
    • Whole universe moves in cycles
    • Goal is the heightening of energies rather than relaxation.
    • Red monks were more liberal in practice
    • Yellow monks were more conservative
    • The head of the monastery was the lama and he would be reborn after he died
  • Buddhism and the West
    • How do we define the Sangha in the US?
    • What does democracy do to the Buddhist traditions?
    • Ethnicity?
    • Gender equality?
    • Level of orthodoxy?
    • Sectarian issues?
  • Worldview
  • The Absolute:
    • Buddha did not believe in traditional gods but he is not an atheist.
    • He taught that belief in gods were not essential to the core mission of life.
    • All humans have the opportunity of becoming buddhas.
  • The world:
    • world of experience is only appearance the real world is that of enlightenment.
    • Debate as to whether one can experience this reality while living or only after death.
  • Humans:
    • human body is not permanent.
    • Choices that we make can change the future.
  • The problem for Humans:
    • suffering is the problem for humans.
    • Humans are ignorant of their impermanence.
    • Suffering is caused by ignorance.
  • The Solution for Humans:
    • Knowledge is the solution.
    • They learn the cause of suffering and learn that something can be done about it.
    • Middle path leads to release from suffering.
    • Buddha is the model to follow and his eightfold path takes discipline.
  • Community and Ethics:
    • Sangha was a well organized body of monks
    • Individual responsibility in community living.
    • Karma is recognized by Buddhist.
    • There is no self to be reborn but ones actions affect others.
    • One must live an exemplary life now.
    • Strong social concern.
    • Impersonal goodwill toward all human beings.
    • Morality: avoid theft, drunkenness, injury to othersetc.
    • Celibacy for monks (except in the tantric rituals)
    • Make no caste distinctions.
  • Women in Buddhism
    • women can become nuns.
    • They were considered lower than their male counterparts.
  • Interpretation of History
    • no vision of the end of history.
    • More concerned with the progress of the individual than the whole of history.
  • Rituals and Symbols
    • central figure is the Buddha pictured in a meditative state.
    • Bowing or kneeling before the image of the Buddha.
    • Wheel of dharma that stands for the Buddhas teaching.
    • Followers take refuge in the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha
    • Rigorous and extensive initiation into the order.
  • Life after Death:
    • In theory, there is nothing to carry over from one life to the other.
    • An individuals moral impact in personal and social life carries over.
    • Some forms of Buddhism focuses on the individuals experience after death.
  • Buddhism and other Religions:
    • ready to cooperate rather than condemn