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  • 8/13/2019 BSNL Subscribers


  • 8/13/2019 BSNL Subscribers


    it is the worlds 7th largesttelecommunication company

    largest public sector units in India

    it provides telecom services with ICTapplication in rural and urban areas

    offers wide ranging and most transparenttariff schemes

    lends a helping hand to the government foregovernance projects

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    Cell phones: 267.23 million (April 2008)

    Land Lines: 39.42 million (March 2008)

    Yearly Cell phone Addition: 83 million(2007)

    Broadband connection: 3.47 million (Feb2008)

  • 8/13/2019 BSNL Subscribers


    Reliance was the first to introduce cellular system in theyear 2000

    Till date estimated users has raised to 201.29millionGSM operates in the range of 900 MHzProvides e-mail, pictures, games, music,internet security including text messagingIncludes national and international roaming

  • 8/13/2019 BSNL Subscribers


    has been a dominant technology for both voice

    and data communicationthere is a communication path between twostationscircuit switching is applied in telephone networksan end to end signal is established and data is

    transmitted through full duplex connection

  • 8/13/2019 BSNL Subscribers


    during heavytraffic, calls are notblockedhas greater

    efficiency incomparison to circuitswitchingto stations of

    different data ratecan exchange packetsit can carry outdata rate conversion

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    BTS in mobile communicationcan connect to the public switchednetwork on the internet

    open BTS relies on licensedbandwidthworld first large scale communityLAN network was built ten years ago atburning centre

    Components of BTSnetwork and switching subsystembase station subsystemoperations support subsystem

    General architectureTrans-receiverPower amplifierCombinerDuplexerAntennaalarm extension system and controlfunction

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    ISI54 standard specifies traffic on digital voicechannels

    initial implementation triples the calling capacity

    of AMPS systems capacity improvements of 6 to 15 times that of

    AMPS are possible many blocks of spectrum in 800 MHz and 1900

    MHz are used all transmissions are digital

  • 8/13/2019 BSNL Subscribers


    is a digital air interface, claiming 8 to 15times the capacity of analog

    employs a commercial adaptation of

    military, spread spectrum and single sideband technology every CDMA cell site can use the same 1.25

    MHz band has soft capacity limit

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    EVOLUTION was launched in Japan by NTTin 1979

    it covered the areas of Tokyoover 20 million with 23 basestations

    TECHNOLOGY based on analog signaling andcircuit switched technologyuses multiple cell sites

    APPLICATION designed for voice and not fordatadesigned for transferring call

    from one site to another

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    EVOLUTIONfirst implemented on 1991 operating in about 140 countriesestimated about 248 million users

    TECHNOLOGYbased on low band digital data signalingit is a combination of FDMA and TDMAuses a 25 MHz frequency spectrum in the 900 MHz bandAPPLICATION

    were digitally encrypted and provides high speedintroduction of data services such as e-mail and SMS

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  • 8/13/2019 BSNL Subscribers


    EVOLUTIONit is available to at least oneprovider in several parts of USAfrom 2009


    uses OFDM AND OFDMATECHNOLOGIESbandwidth flexibility between 5to 20 MHzLTE and Wi-Max also comesunder the brand of 4G technology

    APPLICATIONSit may allow roaming withwireless local loopit may interact with digital videobroad casting systems

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    will use the router and switch technologywill provide with 25 Mbps connectivity speedwill provide bi-directional large bandwidth shapingAPPLICATIONoffers high resolution for cell phone userstraffic statistics makes it more accuratealso supports virtual private network

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    it can travel as packets over any equipment that supportspacket based communicationit is the current standard for data networksit allows slow transition from direct, connection basedcommunication to VoIP communicationcentral office of VoIP will connect to an IPV6 internetbackbone, which will then connect to the destination office

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  • 8/13/2019 BSNL Subscribers


    it includes location registration, pagingand handover

    it should be able to access services at

    any location global roaming should be provided with

    the help of WLANs

    need not do location registration everytime

    can instead do concatenated locationregistration