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    BRTS

    Graduate Report - 2015

    Traffic and transportation planning

    Bus Rapid Transit System

    M. Tech. (Urban Planning), Semester I

    Faculty d!is"r Submitted By

    #r. $..%hauhan RI$I& PT'

    (P*UP++)

    Post Graduate Section in Urban Planning

    %i!il 'ngineering #epartment

    TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION 2015Page 1

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    BRTS

    %&T'&TS

    .+ I&TR#U%TI&

    -.+ #'FI&ITI& F BRTS.+ /ISTRI% #'0'PM'&T F BRTS

    1.+ %/R%T'RISTI%S F T/' BRTS

    *.+ B'&'FITS F BRTS

    2.+ /M'#B# BRTS

    3.+ %&%USI&

    4.+ R'F'R'&%'S

    TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION 2015Page 2

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    BRTS

    .+ I&TR#U%TI&

    Indias urban population is expected to increase fro 2!" illion in 2001 to 5#$ illion in 202"

    %#!&'( )ur countr* +as to ipro,e its urban infrastructure to ac+ie,e obecti,es of econoic

    de,elopent( .o/e,er ost of t+e cities in India +a,e inadeuate infrastructure( Urban

    transport is one of t+e aor probles affecting t+e obilit* of people and econoic gro/t+ of

    t+e urban areas(

    T+e Polic* priaril* focuses on t+e obilit* of people and not t+e obilit* of ,e+icles( T+is /ill

    reuire t+e public transportation s*ste to be ore attracti,e to use( T+e c+allenge for ipro,ed

    bus transport is to pro,ide good ualit* ser,ice at an affordable price( It is iportant to e,aluate

    alternati,e public transport tec+nologies in t+e context of cit* c+aracteristics( T+e public

    transport options ,ar* bet/een lo/ cost buses to +ig+ cost rail etros( us Rapid Transit is a

    relati,el* inexpensi,e ode and can be ipleented ore /idel*( In case of cost consideration

    for construction of RTS approxiatel* about 5-20 3rores per 4 /+ereas in etropolitan rails

    about 125 to 220 3rores per 46oreo,er t+e s+ape of a cit* is ,er* iportant for selecting t+e

    appropriate ode of transport and capacit* building is a ,er* iportant factor in introducing and

    ipleenting public transport s*ste(

    Se,eral initiati,es +a,e been ta4en in India in t+is regard7 6an* cities +a,e prepared

    3opre+ensi,e 6obilit* Plans and +a,e plans to introduce odern bus ser,ices us RapidTransit S*ste %RTS' is coing up in ele,en cities six cities are planning ne/ etro rail

    s*stes(

    Transp"rtati"n pr"blems "5 Indian metr"p"litan cities are listed bel"67

    Unplanned +ap+a8ard de,elopent at t+e suburban fringes /it+out adeuate

    infrastructure transport and ot+er public ser,ices( T+e spatial gro/t+ differentials of

    6ega cities in India s+o/s t+at in case of angalore 9 gro/ing core and declining

    perip+er* /+ereas in :el+i - declining core gro/ing perip+er* and rest of t+e four cities

    suc+ as Greater 6ubai ;ol4ata 3+ennai and .*derabad s+o/s t+at declining core and

    perip+er*

    TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION 2015Page 3

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    BRTS

    Probles associated /it+ ixed traffic conditions on urban streets of Indian etropolitan

    cities are uniue( xtreel* congested roads /it+ an incopatible ix of bot+ otori8ed and non-

    otori8ed ,e+icles tra,eling at /idel* different speeds

    Rapidl* increasing o/ners+ip and use of pri,ate cars and otorc*cles

    Inadeuate road/a* accoodations for buses and non-otori8ed transport

    Priiti,e or non-existent traffic control and anageent often /it+out e,ent+e ost

    basic street signage

    >xtreel* +ig+ and rapidl* rising traffic fatalities especiall* aong

    pedestriansandotorc*clists ?on-otori8ed transport road user accounting for "0 to

    !0percent and 6otori8ed t/o @+eelers coprises approxiatel* A0 percent of all ,e+icles and constitute 20to #0

    percent of fatalities

    ),ercro/ded uncofortable undependable slo/ uncoordinated Inefficientand

    dangerous public transport

    >xtreel* +ig+ le,els of transport-related pollution noise and ot+er

    >n,ironental ipacts especiall* in t+e etropolitan cities(

    -. #'FI&ITI& F BUS RPI# TR&SIT S7ST'M (BRTS)

    T+ere is no precise definition of us Rapid Transit S*ste( @rig+t %2005' defines itas a Bbus-

    based ass transit s*ste t+at deli,ers fast cofortable and costeffecti,e urban obilit*C( In

    =e,inson et al( %200#' it is defined as Ba flexible rubber-tired rapid-transit ode t+at cobines

    stations ,e+icles ser,ices running/a*s and Intelligent Transportation S*ste %ITS' eleents

    into an integrated s*ste/it+ a strong positi,e identit* t+at e,o4es a uniue iageC(

    T+e DRapid Transit /+ic+ describes a +ig+-capacit* transport s*ste /it+ its o/nrig+t-of-/a*

    ipleented using buses t+roug+ infrastructural and sc+edulingipro,eents to pro,ide a +ig+

    le,el of ser,ice( It incorporates ost of t+e +ig+-ualit*aspects of etropolitan s*stes /it+out

    t+e +ig+ in,estents it usesa,ailable space on arterial roads of cities /it+ dedicated bus /a*s

    and it utili8esodern tec+nologies for optii8ing flo/ passenger o,eent tic4eting

    TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION 2015Page 4

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    BRTS

    bussc+eduling and traffic signal priorit*( us Rapid Transit S*ste as an approac+ toPro,iding

    superior transit ser,ice /it+ buses t+at integrate tec+nolog* an operatingplan %or ser,ice design'

    and a custoer interface(

    . /ISTRI% #'0'PM'&T F BUS RPI# TR&SIT S7ST'M

    T+e first /ide scale de,elopent of t+e us Rapid Transits started in 3uritiba ra8il in 1EA$

    alt+oug+ t+ere /ere se,eral saller scale proects prior to its de,elopent( Since t+en 3uritibas

    experience +as inspired ot+er cities to de,elop siilar s*stes( In t+e 1EA0s de,elopent of

    RTS /as liited to t+e ?ort+ and Sout+

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    BRTS

    cases tra,el tie reductions resulting fro t+e introduction of RT ser,ices +a,e

    soeties exceeded $0&( Riders+ip increases +a,e also been reported deonstrating t+at RT can attract and retain

    ne/ and e,en discretionar* riders( >,idence suggests t+at an* of t+e ne/ riders /ere

    pre,iousl* otorists and t+at ipro,ed bus ser,ice results in ore freuent tra,el( T+e tra,el tie sa,ings associated /it+ buses operating on t+eir o/n rig+ts-of-/a* +a,e

    also ac+ie,ed operating costs and safet* and en,ironentall* benefits( Hor exaple

    3uritiba uses #0& less fuel per capita for transportation t+an ot+er aor ra8ilian cities(

    T+is +as been attributed in part to t+e success of t+e RT s*ste( =i4e ot+er RT rapid rail transit odes RT stations can pro,ide a point for transit-

    oriented de,elopent( If local go,ernents ipleent land use planning policies t+at

    encourage de,elopent near RT facilities c+ances of success increase e,en ore(

    3ofortable riding a,ailable to citi8en( T+ere /ill be great decrease in t+e rate of road accidents(

    1. %/R%T'RISTI%S F T/' BRTS

    P+*sicall* segregated bus /a*s

    It eans separate lane is exclusi,el* dedicatedto us Rapid Transit S*ste( T+e edian

    and t+e inner ost lane or t+e leftost lane can be dedicated to t+e bus( In case of edian lanes

    bus stops orstations can be built in t+e edian to furt+er ipro,e t+e flo/

    us Rapid Transits s*ste is on Dat grade le,el so build easier access andcofortable and

    efficient +ig+ station platfors and s+elters( )nl* RTS buses+a,e access rapid boarding and

    alig+ting disabilit* and user friendl*

    3onstruction tie for us Rapid Transit S*ste is relati,el* s+ort( Planning andconstruction of

    1! 4 span of RTS /ill ta4e 1 to # *ears and in case ofetropolitan areas it is about # to 5

    *ears

    >fficient fleet anageent and +ig+ passenger ,olues - in case of ogotJ%Trans 6ilena

    P+ase 1K2a' about 1020000 passengers per da* and axiupea4 +our ,olue per direction is

    about #5000 passengers per +our %including2K2 lanes'( @+ereas in 3uritiba about 5#0000

    TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION 2015Page 6

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    BRTS

    passengers per da* and axiupea4 +our ,olue per direction is about 1$000 passengers per

    +our %1K1 lanes'(and

    .ig+ coercial speeds of bus operations not/it+standing at-gradeintersections( T+e ain

    reason for +ig+ speed is segregated bus /a*s fareprepa*ent +ig+ station platfors and express

    ser,ices(

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    BRTS

    >xclusi,e tra,el /a*s reduce tra,el ties in general about 1(5 to 2 inutes per ile %.obertet al

    200$'(

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    BRTS

    s*stes pro,ide a dedicated corridor for uic4er bus o,eents %coupled /it+ bus priorit*

    signaling s*ste' and gi,e a segregated and safe corridor for pedestrians and non-otori8ed

    transport li4e c*cles and c*cle ric4s+a/s(

    2. /M'#B# BRTS

    T+e Go,ernent of Guarat +ad declared 2005 t+e MNear of Urban :e,elopentD %S+a+eri i4as

    ars+'( :uring t+is particular *ear t+e urban de,elopent departent undertoo4 ,arious

    initiati,es to resol,e urban issues suc+ as traffic anageent and t+e introduction and

    en+anceent of a cit* transport s*ste( T+e Guarat Infrastructure :e,elopent oard %GI:'

    PT Uni,ersit* /as assigned t+e /or4 of t+e preparing of a :etailed Proect Report %:PR' for

    t+e ipleentation of t+e RTS proect in

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    BRTS

    -. BRT Stati"ns;

    #! long # /ide edian bus stations closed /it+ necessar* access controls at le,el boarding-

    alig+ting off-board tic4eting s*ste IT enabled O Passenger Inforation S*ste securit*

    s*stes O pedestrian crossings O grade separate