Breeding of indigenous plants for Southern Africa: Domestication of Marama bean

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Breeding of indigenous plants for Southern Africa: Domestication of Marama bean. Percy CHIMWAMUROMBE DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Faculty of Science UNIVERSITY OF NAMIBIA pchimwa@unam.na. UNAM Faculty of Science. Outline of Presentation. Introduction to Marama bean. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Breeding of indigenous plants for Southern Africa: Domestication of Marama bean

  • Breeding of indigenous plants for Southern Africa: Domestication of Marama bean

    Percy CHIMWAMUROMBEDEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Faculty of Science UNIVERSITY OF NAMIBIApchimwa@unam.na

  • *UNAMFaculty of Science

  • Outline of PresentationIntroduction to Marama bean.Marama bean domestication/breeding program.Setting up a domestication/breeding programSummary of past and ongoing actions.

    *

  • Tylosema esculentum

    Marama bean (2n=44) :

    Family Fabaceae, subfamily CaesalpinoidaeCreeping perennial non nodulating legume (25-36m)Edible seeds (3g) and large roots (25kg-100kg)Grows in the Kalahari sands regions (Namibia, RSA & Botswana)Grows well in low rainfall ( 50-500mm)Drought avoiding plantHigh protein, fatty acids and starch

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  • *Marama bean life cycle

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  • Edible Marama bean seeds- 3g per seed*

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  • Marama young roots (bulged) *

  • Marama large root, rich in edible and industrial starch*

  • Domestication: is the outcome of a selection process that leads to increased adaptation of plants and animals to cultivation or rearing and utilization by humans considering the positive or negative role of microorganisms*microbesmicrobesmicrobes

  • The Performance Gap in AgriculturepgA*

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  • *Modern Crop Domestication and Breeding: Southern Africa Context

  • Summary of the Projected impacts of climate change in Africa

    By 2020, between 75 and 250 million people in Africa are projected to be exposed to increased water stress due to climate change.By 2020, in some countries, yields from rain-fed agriculture could be reduced by up to 50%. Agricultural production, including access to food, in many African countries is projected to be severely compromised. This would further adversely affect food security and exacerbate malnutrition.Towards the end of the 21st century, projected sea level rise will affect low-lying coastal areas with large populations.By 2080, an increase of 5 to 8% of arid and semi-arid land in Africa is projected under a range of climate scenarios.The cost of adaptation could amount to at least 5 to 10% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP).*Source: Report. Summary for Policy Makers, IPCC, 2007

  • 50 yr Climate Change projections*Tylosema genus distribution

  • African Child Wellness StatisticsIt has been estimated that every minute eight under-five children die in sub-Saharan Africa. Two thirds of the under-five deaths in the African Region are due to preventable causes. The chief causes of death are complicated by malnutrition that accounts for one third of all deaths in children under five years. Food insecurity in Africa threatens the lives of millions of vulnerable people.Under nutrition is directly or indirectly responsible for 3.5 million child death every year.Sub-Saharan Africa has one of the highest prevalence of low birth weight ranging from 7-42%.Although the degree to which indirect determinants of death are expressed varies between countries, malnutrition is a critical risk factor in most countries, and nutrition and food security remains a fundamental challenge to child survival.

    *Source: Report. WHO Regional Office for Africa, 2012

  • What are the Southern African regional common issues?Food production-Climate change effectsHealth issuesNutritional issues (child protein deficiencies)Jobs (and jobs creation)*

  • Modern Crop Domestication An open-minded approach is required, even hearing brutal non conventional ideas.Prioritize participatory approaches until better empowerment tools come.Mixing past practices and new styles in domestication- learning from the current and past experiences invoking new ways.Consider the current, past nutritional trends (e.g. most people nowadays remove chicken skins, running away from fats, this is a new trend. It was not like this 30 years ago). Now is a there is need to breed for lean chicken!Consider climate change effects.New mindset: develop indigenous crops (just looks at what Africa eats today, and ask how much of that is native to Africa, only 3-4 crops only, there rest of them are invasives, for lack of better word).This is time to develop local crops that resilient and adapted to local environments for millennia, may be we can combat climate change effects.In many fora where health issues of Africa are discussed one always hear that people should start eating traditional foods to avoid exposure to modern/western/eastern foods which their physiology is not genetically adapted to. Whether true or false, real of perception, these voices need to be listened and something must be done, lest the future generations will not have kind words to us.

  • NOTETime is limited.So be fast, move away from BUSINESS AS-USUAL (BAU) domestication approaches.*

  • vCentral Goal: Domestication of Marama bean

  • vCentral goal: domestication of Marama bean1.Basic Plant Biology

  • vCentral goal: domestication of Marama bean1.Basic Plant Biology2. Crop breeding

  • vCentral goal: domestication of Marama bean1.Basic Plant Biology2. Crop breeding3. Crop protection

  • vCentral goal: domestication of Marama bean1.Basic Plant Biology2. Crop breeding3. Crop protection4. Product development

  • vCentral goal: domestication of Marama bean1.Basic Plant Biology2. Crop breeding3. Crop protection4. Product development5. Agronomy

  • vCentral goal: domestication of Marama bean1.Basic Plant Biology2. Crop breeding3. Crop protection4. Product development5. Agronomy6. Product piloting

  • vCentral goal: domestication of Marama bean1.Basic Plant Biology2. Crop breeding3. Crop protection4. Product development5. Agronomy6. Product piloting7. Microbiology& Entomology

  • vCentral goal: domestication of Marama bean1.Basic Plant Biology2. Crop breeding3. Crop protection4. Product development5. Agronomy6. Product piloting7. Microbiology& Entomology8. Conservation Genetics

  • vCentral goal: domestication of Marama bean1.Basic Plant Biology2. Crop breeding3. Crop protection4. Product development5. Agronomy6. Product piloting7. Microbiology& Entomology8. Conservation Genetics9. Omics and gene discovery

  • vParticipatory production Central goal: domestication of Marama bean1.Basic Plant Biology2. Crop breeding3. Crop protection4. Product development5. Agronomy6. Product piloting7. Microbiology& Entomology8. Conservation Genetics9. Omics and gene discovery

  • vParticipatory production Central goal: domestication of Marama bean1.Basic Plant Biology2. Crop breeding3. Crop protection4. Product development5. Agronomy6. Product piloting7. Microbiology& Entomology8. Conservation Genetics9. Omics and gene discovery11. Participatory product piloting

  • vParticipatory production Central goal: domestication of Marama bean1.Basic Plant Biology2. Crop breeding3. Crop protection4. Product development5. Agronomy6. Product piloting7. Microbiology& Entomology8. Conservation Genetics9. Omics and gene discovery11. Participatory product piloting12. Bio-fertlisers

  • vParticipatory production Central goal: domestication of Marama bean1.Basic Plant Biology2. Crop breeding3. Crop protection4. Product development5. Agronomy6. Product piloting7. Microbiology& Entomology8. Conservation Genetics9. Omics and gene discovery11. Participatory product piloting12. Bio-fertlisers13.More gene discovery

  • vParticipatory production Central goal: domestication of Marama bean1.Basic Plant Biology2. Crop breeding3. Crop protection4. Product development5. Agronomy6. Product piloting7. Microbiology& Entomology8. Conservation Genetics9. Omics and gene discovery11. Participatory product piloting12. Bio-fertlisers13.More gene discovery14. Commercial scales of production

  • vParticipatory production Central goal: domestication of Marama bean1.Basic Plant Biology2. Crop breeding3. Crop protection4. Product development5. Agronomy6. Product piloting7. Microbiology& Entomology8. Conservation Genetics9. Omics and gene discovery11. Participatory product piloting12. Bio-fertlisers13.More gene discovery14. Commercial scales of production15. Commercial scales for byproducts

  • vParticipatory production Central goal: domestication of Marama bean1.Basic Plant Biology2. Crop breeding3. Crop protection4. Product development5. Agronomy6. Product piloting7. Microbiology& Entomology8. Conservation Genetics9. Omics and gene discovery11. Participatory product piloting12. Bio-fertlisers13.More gene discovery14. Commercial scales of production15. Commercial scales for byproducts16. Future perspectives

  • *Building capacity on crop diversification in light of climate change: A broad skills training vehicle.

  • Initial Research QuestionsIs there variability between- and in marama populations?Are there any superior genotypes in the environment? Can molecular genetic tools be used to identify and selected such?Can phenotypic tools be used for selection? Is it possible to increase the yield of marama?Do bacteria play a role in enhancing marama nutrient acquisition? Is it possible to prescribe best growing areas and cultural practices?Does marama have other uses besides food and feed: ITK uses?Is marama bean acceptable and viable as a commercial crop- locally, regionally and internationally?*

  • MaramaDistribution Map

  • Using SSRs, We have found low inter-population genetic diversity and high intra-population variability in marama subpopulation

    The similarities for each cluster were between 75-92%, which is high, in