Breeding Bean

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  • 8/13/2019 Breeding Bean



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    GEPB-512/ Zeba madam

    Breeding Bean

    Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of the family "fabaceae"

    (alternately "leguminosae") used for human food or animal feed.

    The whole young pods of bean plants, if picked before the pods ripen and dry, are very tender

    and may be eaten cooked or raw. Thus the term "green beans" means "green" in the sense of

    unripe (many are in fact not green in color). In some cases, the beans inside the pods of "green

    beans" are too small to comprise a significant part of the cooked fruit.

    Bean Phaseolus vulgaris Chromosome number 22


    The term "bean" originally referred to the seed of the broad bean, but was later epanded to

    include members of the genus "phaseolus," such as the common beanand the runner bean, and

    the related genus "!igna." The term is now applied generally to many other related plants such

    as soybeans,peas,lentils, chickpeas(garbanos),vetches, and lupins.

    "Bean" can be used as a synonym of "pulse," an edible legume, though the term "pulses" is

    usually reserved for leguminous crops harvested for their dry grain, and usually ecludes cropsused mainly for oil etraction (such as soybeans and peanuts) or those used eclusively for

    sowingpurposes (such as cloverand alfalfa). #eguminous crops harvested green for food, such

    as snap peas,snow peas, and so on, are classified as vegetable crops.

    In $nglish usage, the word "bean" is also sometimes used to refer to the seeds or pods of plants

    that are not in the family leguminosae, but which bear a superficial resemblance to true beans%%

    for eample coffee beans, castor beansand cocoa beans(which resemble bean seeds), and vanilla

    beans(which resemble the pods).

    Beans are one of the longest%cultivated plants. Broad beans, with seeds the sie of the small

    fingernail, were gathered in their wild state in &fghanistanand the 'imalayan foothills. In a

    form improved from naturally occurring types, they were grown in Thailand already since the

    early seventh millennium (B), predating ceramics. They were deposited with the dead in
  • 8/13/2019 Breeding Bean



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    GEPB-512/ Zeba madam

    ancient $gypt. ot until the second millennium B did cultivated, large%seeded broad beans

    appear in the &egean, Iberia and transalpine $urope. In the "Iliad" (late%*th century) is a passing

    mention of beans and chickpeascast on the threshing floor.+-

    The oldest%known domesticated beans in the &mericas were found in uitarrero ave, an

    archaeological site in /eru, and dated to around the second millennium B$.

    Beans were an important source of proteinthroughout 0ld and ew 1orld history, and still are

    today. There are over ,222cultivarsof bean on record in the 3nited 4tates alone.

    5ost of the kinds commonly eaten fresh come from the &mericas, being first seen by a $uropean

    when hristopher olumbus,during his eploration, of what may have been the Bahamas, found

    them growing in fields. 6ive kinds of Phaseolusbeans were domesticated by pre%olumbian

    peoples7 common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown from hile to the northern part of what is

    now the 3nited 4tates, and lima and sieva beans (Phaseolus lunatus), as well as the less widely

    distributed teparies (Phaseolus acutifolius), scarlet runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus) and

    polyanthus beans (Phaseolus polyanthus)+8- 0ne especially famous use of beans by pre%

    olumbian people as far north as the &tlantic seaboard is the "Three 4isters" method of

    companion plantcultivation7

    0n the east coast of what would come to be called the 3nited 4tates, some tribes would grow

    maie(corn), beans, and s9uashintermingled together, a system which had originated in 5eico.

    The corn would not be planted in rows as it is today, but in a checkerboard:he fashion across a

    field, in separate patches of one to four stalks each.

    Beans would be planted around the base of the developing stalks, and would vine their way up as

    the stalks grew. &ll &merican beans at that time were vine plants, "bush beans" having been bred

    only more recently. The cornstalks would work as a trellis for the beans, and the beans would

    provide much%needed nitrogenfor the corn.

    49uash would then be planted in the spaces between the patches of corn in the field. They would

    be provided slight shelter from the sun by the corn, and would deter many animals from

    attacking the corn and beans because their coarse, hairy vines and broad, stiff leaves are difficult

    or uncomfortable for animals such as deer and raccoons to walk through, crows to land on, etc.
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    GEPB-512/ Zeba madam

    ;ry beans come from both 0ld 1orld varieties of broad beans (fava beans) and ew 1orld

    varieties (kidney, black, cranberry, pinto, navy:haricot).


    There are many bean types, including7

    . umbellattaor ricebean

    . unguiculataor cowpea(includes theblack%eyed pea, yardlong beanand others)

    ?. Cicer 7arietinumor chickpea(also known as the garbano bean)sativumor pea

    @ .Lathyrus

    8 Lathyrus sativus (Indian pea)

    * Lathyrus tuberosus (Tuberous pea)

    A Lens

    a. culinarisor lentil