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  • BRAND BUILDING(As per the Revised Syllabus of T.Y. BMM w.e.f. 2016,

    Semester V, University of Mumbai)

    Bulbul Bhattacharjee


  • AuthorNo part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, ortransmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,recording and/or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher.

    First Edition : 2009Second Revised Edition : 2013Reprint : 2014Third Revised Edition : 2016

    Published by : Mrs. Meena Pandey for Himalaya Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.,Ramdoot, Dr. Bhalerao Marg, Girgaon, Mumbai - 400 004.Phone: 022-23860170/23863863, Fax: 022-23877178E-mail:; Website:

    Branch Offices :New Delhi : Pooja Apartments, 4-B, Murari Lal Street, Ansari Road,

    Darya Ganj, New Delhi - 110 002. Phone: 011-23270392,23278631; Fax: 011-23256286

    Nagpur : Kundanlal Chandak Industrial Estate, Ghat Road,Nagpur - 440 018. Phone: 0712-2738731, 3296733;Telefax: 0712-2721216

    Bengaluru : Plot No. 91-33, 2nd Main Road Seshadripuram,Behind Nataraja Theatre, Bengaluru-560020.Phone: 08041138821, 9379847017, 9379847005

    Hyderabad : No. 3-4-184, Lingampally, Besides Raghavendra SwamyMatham, Kachiguda, Hyderabad - 500 027.Phone: 040-27560041, 27550139

    Chennai : New-20, Old-59, Thirumalai Pillai Road, T. Nagar,Chennai - 600 017. Mobile: 9380460419

    Pune : First Floor, "Laksha" Apartment, No. 527, Mehunpura,Shaniwarpeth (Near Prabhat Theatre), Pune - 411 030.Phone: 020-24496323/24496333;Mobile: 09370579333

    Lucknow : House No 731, Shekhupura Colony, Near B.D. Convent School,Aliganj, Lucknow - 226 022. Phone: 0522-4012353;Mobile: 09307501549

    Ahmedabad : 114, SHAIL, 1st Floor, Opp. Madhu Sudan House, C.G. Road,Navrang Pura, Ahmedabad - 380 009. Phone: 079-26560126;Mobile: 09377088847

    Ernakulam : 39/176 (New No: 60/251) 1st Floor, Karikkamuri Road, Ernakulam,Kochi 682011. Phone: 0484-2378012, 2378016;Mobile: 09387122121

    Bhubaneswar : 5 Station Square, Bhubaneswar - 751 001 (Odisha).Phone: 0674-2532129, Mobile: 09338746007

    Kolkata : 108/4, Beliaghata Main Road, Near ID Hospital, Opp. SBI Bank,Kolkata - 700 010, Phone: 033-32449649, Mobile: 7439040301

    DTP by : SanhitaPrinted at : Rose Fine Art, Mumbai. On behalf of HPH.

  • PREFACEEveryday, across the world, brands are being built, reinvented,

    refreshed or retired.Brand building is an exhaustive subject, which entails continuous

    study and updates. This handbook has been refreshed as per the newsyllabus, as revised by the Mumbai University in 2016.

    I wish to thank every T.Y. BMM student who uses the book, andevery faculty who recommends it. However, I do suggest, that theyregularly look up for new brand stories based on their understanding ofthe concepts, detailed in the book.

    I again wish to thank Mr. K.N. Pandey of Himalaya PublishingHouse Pvt. Ltd. for being such an inspiration to me.

    All concepts, examples and case studies are explained with clarityand do not reflect the personal choices or prejudices of the author forany brand or service mentioned.

    Feedback is always welcome.


  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Building Strong Brands: David A. Aaker

    Aaker on Brands

    The Essential Brand Book by Iain Ellwood

    The Brand Management Checklist Brad Van Auken

    Designing and Implementing Brand Strategies: Kevin Lane

    Keller, Tuck School of Business, Dartmouth College.

    Excerpts from various Internet sites showing matter/articles

    relating to the title of the book.

  • SYLLABUSBrand Building

    Semester - VMax. Marks: 100 (Theory: 75, Internals: 25)

    Objectives: To study the concept of Brands To study the process of building brands To study its importance to the consumer and advertisers

    Module Topic Details Number ofLectures

    I Brand Definition

    Importance of Branding

    Difference between Brand and Product

    Process of Branding


    II Brand Identity Core Identity

    Extended Identity

    Brand Identity Traps


    III Brand Positioning Definition

    Importance of Brand Positioning Perceptual Mapping


    IV Brand Personality Definition

    The Importance of Creating BrandPersonality

    Attributes that Affect Brand Personality

    Factors that affect Brand Personality

    Brand Personality Models:

    Relationship Model

    Self Expressive Model

    Functional Benefit Model

    The Big Five

    User Imagery


    V Brand Leverage Line Extension

    Brand Extension

    Moving Brand up/down



  • VI Branding Strategies The three Perspective of Brand StrategicCustomer Analysis

    Completion Self-analysis

    Multi-Product Branding


    Mix Branding

    Brand Licensing

    Brand Product Matrix

    Brand Hierarchy

    Brand Building Blocks


    VII Brand Re-positioning Meaning

    Occasion of Use

    Falling Sales

    Making the Brand Contemporary

    New Customers

    Changed Market Conditioning

    Differentiating Brands from Competitors


    VIII Brand Equity Case Studies such as Vicks Vapour,Milkmaid etc.


    Step in Creating Brand Equity


    Perceived Quality

    Brand Association

    Brand Loyalty

    Other Brand Asset


    IX Brand EquityManagement Models

    Brand Equity Ten

    Y & R (BAV)




    X Brand BuildingImperative

    Co-ordination Across Organization

    Co-ordination Across Media

    Co-ordinating Strategy & Tactics AcrossMarkets



    1. Brand Building 1 9

    2. Brand Identity 10 20

    3. Brand Positioning 21 26

    4. Brand Personality 27 36

    5. Brand Leverage 37 46

    6. Branding Strategies 47 58

    7. Re-positioning of Brands 59 64

    8. Brand Equity 65 77

    9. Brand Equity Measures 78 89

    10. Brand Building Imperatives 90 96

  • 1


    Chapter : 1

    The Importance of BrandingFor many, branding seems synonymous with marketing. Nothing

    could be farther from the truth. If that was so, then every competitorsproducts would be as much in demand as yours. But we know that doesnot happen.

    A brand is the sum total of everything which a company does andthat signifies the good and the bad to create a distinct presence in themind of a consumer.

    An American academician said, that brands are not ends inthemselves, in fact, they area a solution. He has also implied that brandsare only a way to achieve other things, expressions of deep seateddesires, manifestations of innermost feelings.

    To build a brand requires a strategic vision, a clear focus on howyou would want your brand to be perceived and its strong valuepropositions. Brand Building is not an overnight job. It has to maintainits relevancy over time. Only then can it sustain its existence.

    In competitive times when every product manufactured is good inquality, only a distinct identity created for a brand can make it aconsumers first choice.

  • 2 Brand Building

    What is a Brand

    A brand essentially conveys a promise to the consumer that it willdeliver value to the customer through its promise of relevantdifferentiated benefits.

    The brand usually establishes this in its own unique way.


    FedEx Overnight delivery

    Volvo Safety

    Disney Fun, family, entertainment

    McDonalds Fast food

    Wall Mart low prices

    Apple Innovative

    Bisleri bottled water

    Over a period of time, the product gets identified with certainqualities and this creates a distinct brand identity for the product and/orcompany.

    The American Marketing Association describes the brand as aName, term, sign, symbol or design or a combination of them intendedto identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and todifferentiate them from those of other sellers .


    The Nike swoosh

    The McDonalds M

    The Mercedes emblem

    The Titan signature tune

    A brand mainly has two functions:

    (a) To distinguish different products from each otherExample: Shoes by BATA

    Shoes by Woodland

  • 3Brand

    (b) To indicate a products origin. It is an identifier of the seller.Brands represent a level of quality.Example: Colgate toothpaste from Colgate Palmolive

    Samsung mobile handsets by SamsungLux beauty soap by HUL

    A brand represents value, culture, personality. Brands make iteasier for consumers to identify products and services. Brands ensure acomparable quality.

    Example: Dabur has established over the years, that it is acompany dedicated to Ayurvedic solutions for various consumer needs.

    Example: Dabur Hajmola for digestion

    Dabur Amla hair oil for strong hair

    Dabur Honey for good health

    So over the years they have created an image among the consumersabout the base of all their products. This, they have done, by living uptotheir promises about their products. Hence if a person were to want agood Ayurvedic product, he would immediately think of buying it fromthe Dabur stable of products.

    Brand Essentials

    Brands are powerful entities that combine the functionalperformance-based values which are rationally-evaluated andhave emotional values which are effectively evaluated.

    Building a brand is a creative process which results in a newbranded product. This process gives the brand a meaning andpurpose, its con