Bones - Skeleton

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Bones - Skeleton. Early Life. During development of the embryo, the human skeleton is made up of cartilage and fibrous membranes, but most of these early supports are soon replaced by bone. Think about the body position in utero during development, and the first few years of child’s life. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Bones - Skeleton

Early LifeDuring development of the embryo, the human skeleton is made up of cartilage and fibrous membranes, but most of these early supports are soon replaced by bone.

Think about the body position in utero during development, and the first few years of childs life.Most bones stop growing during adolescence.

Some facial bones, especially those of the nose and lower jaw, continue to grow almost to no end throughout life.(example of change of facial structure in elderly)Skeletondivided into the axial and appendicularTogether comprise 206 bones in the human body

axial skeleton

These bones form the vertical axis of the body. They function in protection and support of the body and body parts.

skull bonesvertebral columnrib cageAxial Skeleton

Appendicular Skeleton

These bones comprise the upper and lower limbs of the body, and the bones that connect limbs to the axial skeleton. They function in movement.

claviclespelvisArms and handsLegs and feetAppendicular Skeleton

Function of Bones

-Protection of vital organs-Support & maintenance of posture-Providing attachment points for muscles-Storage & release of minerals (calcium & phosphorus)-Blood cell production (haemopoiesis)-Storage of energy (lipids in yellow bone marrow)bone classifications (types)

Long bones: longer than they are wide; have a shaft with 2 ends. Movement bones: including femur, metatarsals & clavicleShort bones: small & cube-shaped. Include carpals & tarsalsFlat bones: thin, flat and often curved. Including the sternum, scapula, ribs and skull bonesIrregular bones: have specialized & complicated shapes, including sacrum, coccyx & vertebraeBone classifications

Bone Textures

Bones are made up of 2 layers that differ in texture and function:- Compact bone: external layer of the bone that is very dense, filled with passageways for nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels.- Cancellous bone: internal layer of the bone that looks spongy; has an irregular latticework structure.Long Bone: structure

Long bones are mainly comprised of a shaft, 2 ends and membranes.Diaphysis: the shaft; constructed of compact bone and envelopes a marrow cavity. In adults, this cavity stores yellow marrow (fat)Epiphyses: the bone ends of a long bone; constructed of compact bone externally and spongy bone internally. Blood cell production occurs hereContArticular Cartilage: thin layer of cartilage covering the ends of the bone where joints are formed. They reduce friction & absorb shock- Periosteum; thin shiny white membrane; important for bone growth, repair, nutrition and attachment of ligaments/tendons.- Medullary Cavity: space within the diaphysis where yellow bone marrow is stored.-Nutrient Foramen: where blood vessels pass into the bone.Diagram of Long Bone

Vertebral column

33 Vertebrae in the bodyStrong and flexibleCervical: 7 vertebrae; the smallest & have the most movementThoracic: 12 vertebrae; less mobile due to the ribs attached to themLumbar: 5 vertebrae; biggest & strongest; weight bearingSacral: 5 vertebrae (fused); transmit weight to the legs/pelvisCoccygeal: 4 vertebrae (fused)Vertebrae

VertebraeThe vertebral foramen; (hole) in each vertebrae line up to house the spinal cord.-Intervertebral discs: located between the body of each vertebrae; fibrocartilage on the outside & gel like in the middle; give the vertebral column flexibility; shock absorbers

Spinal column

4 curves of the spine increase strength, help maintain upright balance & absorb shock

SourcesHuman Anatomy & Physiology, Pearson International Edition, Eighth Edition. Marieb and Hoehn. 2010

McGraw-Hill Companies. www.mcgraw-hill.com/

National Library of Medicine and International Osteoporosis Foundation.

www.nlm.nih.gov/ Nucleus Communications, Inc. 2003.

www.nucleusinc.com

Visual Dictionary Online. www.visualdictionaryonline.com

http://tw.aisj-jhb.com/dslattery/files/2013/05/bones.pdf