Bones, Part 1: The Axial Skeleton

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7. Bones, Part 1: The Axial Skeleton. The Vertebral Column. Formed from 26 bones in the adult Transmits weight of trunk to the lower limbs Surrounds and protects the spinal cord. The Vertebral Column. Serves as attachment sites for muscles of the neck and back Held in place by ligaments - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Bones, Part 1: The Axial Skeleton

7Bones, Part 1:The Axial SkeletonPowerPoint Lecture Slides prepared by Leslie HendonUniversity of Alabama, BirminghamC H A P T E RCopyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Part 4Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.The Vertebral Column Formed from 26 bones in the adultTransmits weight of trunk to the lower limbsSurrounds and protects the spinal cordCopyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.The Vertebral Column Serves as attachment sites for muscles of the neck and backHeld in place by ligamentsAnterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments Ligamentum flavum Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.The Vertebral ColumnFigure 7.18

Cervical curvature(concave)7 vertebrae, C1 C7Thoracic curvature(convex)12 vertebrae,T1 T12Lumbarcurvature(concave)5 vertebrae, L1 L5Sacralcurvature(convex) 5 fusedvertebrae sacrumCoccyx4 fused vertebraeAnterior viewRight lateral viewC1T123456789101112L12345234567SpinousprocessTransverseprocessesIntervertebraldiscsIntervertebralforamenCopyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Regions and Normal CurvaturesThe Vertebral column has five major regions7 cervical vertebrae of the neck region12 thoracic vertebrae5 lumbar vertebraeSacrumfive fused bonesInferior to lumbar vertebraeCoccyxinferior to sacrumCopyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Regions and Normal CurvaturesCurvatures of the spineCervical and lumbar curvaturesConcave posteriorlyThoracic and sacral curvaturesConvex posteriorityCopyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Regions and Normal CurvaturesCurvatures increase resilience of spineThoracic and sacral curvaturesPrimary curvaturesPresent at birthLumbar curvatureDevelops when baby begins to walkCopyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Ligaments of the SpineMajor supporting ligamentsAnterior longitudinal ligamentAttaches to bony vertebrae and intervertebral discsPrevents hyperextensionPosterior longitudinal ligamentNarrow and relatively weakAttaches to intervertebral discsCopyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Posterior longitudinalligamentAnterior longitudinalligamentBody of a vertebraIntervertebral disc(b) Anterior view of part of the spinal columnLigaments of the Spine

Supraspinous ligamentIntervertebraldiscAnteriorlongitudinalligamentIntervertebral foramenPosterior longitudinalligamentAnulus fibrosusNucleus pulposusSectioned bodyof vertebraTransverse processSectionedspinous processLigamentum flavumInterspinousligamentInferior articular process(a)Median section of three vertebrae, illustrating the compositionof the discs and the ligamentsFigure 7.19a, bCopyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Ligaments of the SpineFigure 7.19c, d

Vertebral spinous process(posterior aspect of vertebra)Spinal nerve rootAnulus fibrosusof discHerniated portionof discNucleuspulposusof discSpinal cord(c) Superior view of a herniated intervertebral discTransverseprocess(d)MRI of lumbar region of vertebral column in sagittal section showing normal and herniated discs

Nucleus pulposus of intact discHerniated nucleuspulposusCopyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Intervertebral DiscsAre cushion-like pads between vertebraeComposed ofNucleus pulposusAnulus fibrosusCopyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Intervertebral DiscsNucleus pulposusGelatinous inner sphereAbsorbs compressive stressesAnulus fibrosusOuter fings formed of ligamentInner rings formed of fibrocartilageContain the nucleus pulposusCopyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.General Structure of VertebraePLAYSpine (horizontal)Figure 7.20

PosteriorAnteriorLaminaSuperior articularprocessandfacetTransverseprocessPedicleSpinousprocessVertebralarchVertebralforamenBody(centrum)Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.General Structure of VertebraeCommon structures to all regionsBodyVertebral archVertebral foramenSpinous processTransverse processSuperior and inferior articular processesIntervertebral foraminaCopyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.