Bones, Part 1: The Axial .Bones, Part 1: The Axial Skeleton ... • Appendicular...

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Transcript of Bones, Part 1: The Axial .Bones, Part 1: The Axial Skeleton ... • Appendicular...

  • 1

    PowerPoint Lecture Slides prepared by Leslie Hendon University of Alabama, Birmingham

    C H A P T E R

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Part 1

    7 Bones, Part 1: The Axial Skeleton

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

    The Skeleton

    Consists of: Bones, cartilage, joints, and ligaments

    Composed of 206 named bones grouped into two divisions Axial skeleton (80 bones) Appendicular skeleton (126 bones)

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

    The Axial Skeleton(in green)

    Formed from 80 named bones

    Consists of skull, vertebral column, and bony thorax

    Figure 7.1a

    Skull

    Thoracic cage (ribs and sternum)

    (a) Anterior view

    Facial bones Cranium

    Sacrum

    Vertebral column

    Clavicle Scapula Sternum Rib Humerus Vertebra Radius Ulna

    Carpals

    Phalanges Metacarpals Femur Patella Tibia Fibula

    Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

    The Axial Skeleton

    Figure 7.1b (b) Posterior view

    Cranium

    Clavicle Bones of pectoral girdle

    Bones of pelvic girdle

    Upper limb

    Scapula

    Rib Humerus Vertebra Radius Ulna

    Carpals Phalanges Metacarpals Femur

    Lower limb

    Tibia Fibula

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.6a

    The Skull

    Formed by cranial and facial bones

    Parietal bone

    Squamous part of frontal bone Nasal bone Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Temporal bone Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Zygomatic bone

    Maxilla

    Mandible

    Infraorbital foramen

    Mental foramen

    (a) Anterior view of skull

    Mental protuberance

    Frontal bone

    Glabella

    Frontonasal suture

    Supraorbital foramen (notch) Supraorbital margin Superior orbital fissure

    Inferior orbital fissure

    Middle nasal concha

    Inferior nasal concha

    Vomer

    Optic canal

    Perpendicular plate Ethmoid bone

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

    The Cranium

    Is the bodys most complex bony structure Formed by cranial and facial bones The cranium Encloses and protects brain Provides attachment for head and neck

    muscles

  • 2

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

    The Face

    Facial bones serve to Form framework of the face Form cavities for the sense organs of sight,

    taste, and smell Provide openings for the passage of air and

    food Hold the teeth in place Anchor muscles of the face

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

    The Cranium Bones of cranium (cranial vault)

    Lambdoid suture

    Facial bones

    Squamous suture

    (a) Cranial and facial divisions of the skull

    Coronal suture

    Figure 7.2a

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Anterior cranial fossa

    Middle cranial fossa

    Posterior cranial fossa

    (b) Superior view of the cranial fossae

    Frontal lobe of cerebrum

    Temporal lobe of cerebrum Cerebellum

    Posterior Middle Anterior

    Cranial fossae

    (c) Lateral view of cranial fossae showing the contained brain regions

    Overview of Skull Geography

    Facial bones form anterior aspect Cranium is divided into cranial vault and the

    base Internally, prominent bony ridges divide skull

    into distinct fossae

    Figure 7.2b, c Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Overview of Skull Geography

    The skull contains smaller cavities Middle and inner ear cavitiesin lateral

    aspect of cranial base Nasal cavitylies in and posterior to the

    nose Orbitshouse the eyeballs Air-filled sinusesoccur in several bones

    around the nasal cavity

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Overview of Skull Geography

    The skull contains approximately 85 named openings Foramina, canals, and fissures Provide openings for important structures Spinal cord Blood vessels serving the brain 12 pairs of cranial nerves

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Cranial Bones

    Formed from eight large bones Paired bones include Temporal bones Parietal bones

    Unpaired bones include Frontal bone Occipital bone Sphenoid bone Ethmoid bone

  • 3

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Parietal Bones and Sutures

    Parietal bones form superior and lateral parts of skull

    Four sutures of the cranium Coronal sutureruns in the coronal plane Located where parietal bones meet the

    frontal bone Squamous sutureoccurs where each

    parietal bone meets a temporal bone inferiorly

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Parietal Bones and Sutures

    Four sutures of the cranium (continued) Sagittal sutureoccurs where right and left

    parietal bones meet superiorly Lambdoid sutureoccurs where the parietal

    bones meet the occipital bone posteriorly

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Sutural Bones

    Small bones that occur within sutures Irregular in shape, size, and location Not all people have sutural bones

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Lambdoid suture Occipital bone

    Superior nuchal line

    External occipital protuberance

    Sutural bone

    Inferior nuchal line

    Occipital condyle

    External occipital crest Occipitomastoid suture

    Parietal bone

    Sagittal suture The Skull Posterior View

    Figure 7.5

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Maxilla (palatine process)

    Hard palate

    Zygomatic bone

    Incisive fossa

    Median palatine suture Intermaxillary suture

    Infraorbital foramen Maxilla Sphenoid bone (greater wing)

    Foramen ovale Pterygoid process

    Foramen lacerum Carotid canal External acoustic meatus Stylomastoid foramen Jugular foramen

    Foramen magnum

    Occipital condyle Inferior nuchal line Superior nuchal line

    Temporal bone (zygomatic process)

    Mandibular fossa

    Vomer

    Styloid process

    External occipital crest External occipital protuberance (a) Inferior view of the skull (mandible removed)

    Mastoid process Temporal bone (petrous part) Basilar part of the occipital bone Occipital bone

    Palatine bone (horizontal plate)

    Foramen spinosum

    Inferior Aspect of the Skull

    Figure 7.7a Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

    (b) Photograph of right side of skull

    Sphenoid bone (greater wing)

    Coronal suture

    Parietal bone Squamous suture

    Zygomatic process

    Temporal bone

    Lambdoid suture Occipital bone

    External occipital protuberance Occipitomastoid suture External acoustic meatus Mastoid process Styloid

    process Mandibular ramus Mandibular angle

    Mental foramen

    Frontal bone

    Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Nasal bone Lacrimal fossa Zygomatic bone

    Maxilla

    Mandible

    Coronoid process

    Alveolar margins

    Mandibular condyle

    Mandibular notch

    Lateral Aspect of the Skull

    Figure 7.4b

  • 4

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

    The Temporal Bone

    Figure 7.8

    Mastoid region

    External acoustic meatus

    Mastoid process

    Styloid process Tympanic region

    Mandibular fossa

    Zygomatic process

    Squamous region

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

    (a) Superior view, as in Figure 7.9

    Optic canal

    Greater wing Sella turcica

    Lesser wing

    Foramen rotundum Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum

    Body of sphenoid

    The Sphenoid Bone

    Figure 7.10a

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Greater wing

    Body of sphenoid

    Superior orbital fissure

    Lesser wing

    Pterygoid process

    (b) Posterior view

    The Sphenoid Bone

    Figure 7.10b Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Orbital plate

    Ethmoidal air cells

    Perpendicular plate

    Middle nasal concha

    Cribriform plate Olfactory foramina

    Crista galli

    Left lateral mass

    Figure 7.12

    The Ethmoid Bone

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Facial Bones

    Unpaired bones Mandible and vomer

    Paired bones Maxillae Zygomatic bones Nasal bones Lacrimal bones Palatine bones Inferior nasal conchae

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Parietal bone

    Squamous part of frontal bone Nasal bone Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Temporal bone Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Zygomatic bone

    Maxilla

    Mandible

    Infraorbital foramen

    Mental foramen

    (a) Anterior view of skull

    Mental protuberance

    Frontal bone Glabella Frontonasal suture Supraorbital foramen (notch) Supraorbital margin Superior orbital fissure

    Inferior orbital fissure

    Middle nasal concha

    Inferior nasal concha Vomer

    Optic canal

    Perpendicular plate Ethmoid bone

    Facial Bones

    Figure 7.6a

  • 5

    Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Coronoid process

    Mandibular foramen

    Mental foramen

    Mandibular angle

    Ramus of mandible

    Mandibular condyle

    Mandibular notch

    Mandibular fossa of temporal bone

    Body of mandible

    Alveolar margin

    (a) Mandible, right lateral view

    Temporomandibular joint

    Mandible

    Figure 7.13a Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Maxillary Bones

    Figure 7.13b

    Frontal process

    Articulates with frontal bone

    Anterior nasal spine

    Infraorbital foramen

    Alveolar margin

    (b) Maxilla, right lateral view

    Orbital su