Bones, muscles, and skin

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Chapter 14 Body Organization & Homeostasis The Skeletal System The Muscular System The Skin. Bones, muscles, and skin. Section 1 Cells Tissues Organs & Organ Systems Homeostasis. Body organization & homeostasis. Cells Tissues. Body organization & homeostasis. Organs & Organ Systems. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Bones, muscles, and skin

Bones, muscles, and skinChapter 14Body Organization & HomeostasisThe Skeletal SystemThe Muscular SystemThe SkinSection 1CellsTissuesOrgans & Organ SystemsHomeostasisBody organization & homeostasisBody organization & homeostasisCellsTissuesBody organization & homeostasisOrgans & Organ SystemsBody organization & homeostasisHomeostasisBody organization & homeostasisHomeostasisSection 2What the Skeletal System DoesJoints of the SkeletonBones Strong and LivingTaking Care of Your BonesThe Skeletal systemThe skeletal SystemThe SkeletonFramework of the human body that is composed of all its bones275 in newborn, 206 in an adult

The skeletal SystemWhat the Skeletal System DoesProvides shape and supportVertebrae (backbone) is center of skeletonProtects organsSkull, breastbone, and ribsEnables movementProduces blood cellsStores minerals & other materials

The skeletal SystemJoints of the SkeletonImmovable JointsSkull Movable JointsHinge JointKnee and elbowBall-and-Socket JointShoulder and hipPivot JointNeckGliding JointWrist and ankle

The skeletal SystemJoints of the Skeleton

Ball & Socket Joint

Gliding Joint

Pivot JointThe skeletal SystemJoints of the SkeletonConnective TissuesLigamentsHolds joints togetherCartilageCushioning Synovial fluidLubrication

The skeletal SystemBones Strong and LivingThin, hard, outer membraneCompact bone spongy boneMarrowRedYellow

The skeletal SystemTaking Care of Your BonesBalanced dietRegular exerciseWear appropriate safety equipment during physical activityOsteoporosis

Section 3Types of MuscleMuscles at WorkThe muscular systemThe muscular systemWhat is the Muscular SystemAll of the muscles in the body (600 in total)Responsible for all movement

Types of MuscleVoluntary MuscleSkeletal muscleInvoluntary MuscleSmooth & cardiac muscle

The muscular systemSkeletal MuscleAttached to the bones of the bodyProvides force that moves the bonesTendons at each end of muscle attach it to the bonesReact quickly to conscious thought, but tire quickly

The muscular systemSmooth MuscleLine many internal organsAid in digestionEsophagus, stomachAid in blood flowarteriesSlow to react but tires slowly

The muscular systemCardiac MuscleLocated only in the heartNever tireRepeated contractions cause heartbeats

The muscular systemSkeletal Muscles at WorkThey can only contract, not extendMust work in pairs to provide range of motionWhile one contracts, the other relaxesEx: biceps and triceps

Section 4The Bodys Tough CoveringThe EpidermisThe DermisCaring for Your SkinThe skinThe skinThe Bodys Tough CoveringLargest single organ of the human bodyS.A. 1.5 m2Performs five major functions

(1) Protects body fromInjury tough, protective outer coverInfection barrier against viruses & bacteriaWater loss seals body against drying out

The skinThe Bodys Tough Covering (contd)Performs five major functions

(2) Regulates body temperatureWhen body temp becomes too highBlood vessels expand to increase blood flow, conduct heat awaySweat glands in skin cause perspiration

(3) Eliminates wastesSweat glands also release dissolved waste in perspirationBroken down proteinsThe skinThe Bodys Tough Covering (contd)Performs five major functions

(4) Gathers information about external environmentNerves in skin provide information aboutPressure, pain, & temperature

(5) Produces vitamin DSome skin cells produce vitamin D in the presence of sunlightImportant for healthy bonesThe skinThere are two main layers of skin

(1) The EpidermisThin, outermost layer of skinNo nerves or blood vesselsStructureCells form deep in layer and move toward surface where they die and remain for a few weeksFunctionDead, outer cells provide protectionDeeper cells produce the pigment, melaninThe skin(2) The DermisInner layer of skin, below epidermis and above fat layer (padding & insulation to protect internal organs)Contains nerves, blood vessels, sweat glands, hairs, and oil glandsPerspiration from sweat glands reaches surface through poresHair grows in dermis from structures called follicles

The skin

Lower EpidermisUpper Epidermis(dead cells)DermisThe skinCaring for Your SkinThree simple habits to keep skin healthyHealthy DietInclude enough H2O to replace lost waterKeeping Skin CleanRemoves dirt & harmful bacteriaControls oiliness (*particularly during adolescence)Limiting Sun ExposureCan make skin leathery and wrinkledCan damage skin cells & possibly lead to *cancer (*uncontrolled growth of certain cells in body)The skin