BLOODSTAIN PATTERNS. BLOOD COMPONENTS Plasma fluid portion of normal unclotted blood red blood...

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Transcript of BLOODSTAIN PATTERNS. BLOOD COMPONENTS Plasma fluid portion of normal unclotted blood red blood...

  • Slide 1
  • BLOODSTAIN PATTERNS
  • Slide 2
  • BLOOD COMPONENTS Plasma fluid portion of normal unclotted blood red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are suspended in it
  • Slide 3
  • BLOOD COMPONENTS Serum liquid portion of clotted blood
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  • SURFACE TENSION OF BLOOD held together by strong cohesive molecular forces outer skin Surface tension lightly less that that of water Liquid mercury is about 10x greater Blood does not fall in teardrop configuration
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  • SURFACE TENSION To create splatters, an external force must overcome surface tension of blood
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  • SURFACE TENSION Surfaces Generally, clean glass or smooth tile, very little splatter Rough texture, wood or concrete, significant splatter
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  • GEOMETRY OF BLOODSTAIN Can determine direction of flight by examining edge characteristics
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  • GEOMETRY Angle of impact 90 degrees results in circular shape
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  • GEOMETRY Angle of impact Less than 90 degrees Elongated
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  • GEOMETRY If you measure width & length of an elliptical bloodstain you can calculate angle of impact Divide width by length take sin-1 gives angle of impact
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  • Geometry Once get angle of impact for each bloodstain 3D origin may be determined
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  • DIRECTION OF TRAVEL Narrow end of elongated blood stain points in direction of travel
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  • SPATTERED BLOOD random distribution of bloodstains that vary in size that may be produced buy a variety of mechanisms
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  • SPATTERED BLOOD Examples: Gunshot Beating Stabbing power tools Arterial cast-off passive
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  • SPATTERED BLOOD may allow determination of an area or location of origin of blood source
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  • SPATTERED BLOOD If found on a suspects clothing, it may place that person at scene of violent altercation
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  • SPATTERED BLOOD May allow determination of mechanism by which pattern was created
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  • SIZE, QUANTITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF SPATTER DEPENDS ON Quantity of blood subjected to impact Force of impact Texture of surface impacted by blood
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  • GUNSHOT High Velocity Spatter Misting effect Varying sizes of impact spatters Depend of caliber of weapon, location, number of shots, etc.
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  • Gunshot
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  • EXAMPLE BACK SPATTER
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  • EXAMPLE GUNSHOT IMPACT SPATTER
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  • Beating and Stabbing Impact Spatter Medium Velocity Spatter Generally size range 1-3 mm in diameter
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  • Castoff Bloodstain Patterns Low Velocity Spatter Blood flung from object such as bat or knife
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  • Passive Bloodstains Low Velocity Blood dripping from injured person
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  • What happens when blood hits blood? Drip patterns
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  • Large Volume Bloodstains Splashing and ricochet Often from victim with large wound or vomiting
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  • EXPIRATED BLOODSTAIN PATTERNS Blood accumulates in lungs, sinuses, airway passages of victim Forcefully expelled from living victim Can look similar to other bloodstain patterns can only be explained if victim has blood on face
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  • ARTERIAL BLOODSTAIN PATTERNS Can be very large gushing or spurting patterns to very small spray types
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  • OTHER BLOODSTAIN PATTERNS Transfer bloodstain patterns Altered bloodstains Void areas or patterns
  • Slide 33
  • INTERPRETATION OF BLOODSTAINS ON CLOTHING AND FOOTWEAR Whose blood is it? How did it get there?
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  • LUMINOL Used for latent bloodstains at crime scene
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  • CHALLENGES Bloodstain pattern interpretation can be very complex Need solid grasps of: Mathematics Physics scientific method practical experience