Bloodborne pathogens

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Transcript of Bloodborne pathogens

  • 1. Bloodborne PathogensDivision of Safety & HygieneDHO UNIT 13 BLOODBORNEPATHOGENS

2. Bloodborne Pathogens Division of Safety & HygieneObjectives: Identify five classes of microorganisms bydescribing their characteristics List six components of the chain of infection Differentiate between antisepsis, disinfection and sterilization 3. Basic Understanding ofInfection ControlNormal FloraNonpathogensPathogensVirulenceHostHealth Care Workersneed to know howdiseases are transmittedand avoid being the linkto further transmission. 4. BacteriaCocci are round, one celled plants classifiedaccording to shape and arrangement. Diplococci are arranged in pairs Examples: Gonorrhea, Meningitis and Pneumonia 5. Streptococci are spherical bacteriaarranged in chains:Examples: Strept. throat, Scarlet Fever,Rheumatic FeverStaphlococci are clusters of cocci.Examples: Wound infections, Impetigo,Toxic Shock Syndrome. Often causingpurulent material to be formed. 6. OTHER BACTERIABACILLI (RODS) are large,rod-shaped cellsFound singly or in groupsExamples Anthrax, Salmonella, TB,Tetanus, TyphoidSPIRILLA are curved or spiral bacteriaThat are arranged singly or in colonies.Examples: Campylobacter, Syphilis, LymeDiseaseANTIBIOTIC ARE OFTEN EFFECTIVEAGAINST A BACTERIAL INFECTION 7. Another version of Bacteria: RICKETTSIARickettsia species are small, Gram-negative bacilli that areobligate intracellular parasites. Called oblate because theycan reproduce only inside other living cells.Examples: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Chlamydia. The Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum, a common, human- biting tick. 8. OTHER PATHOGENS:PROTOZOA are complex one-celledanimals that can live in human fluidsand cause disease. Many have flagella.Examples: Giardia (Travelers Diarrhea)Trichomonas, MalariaFungi are simple plants but withoutchlorophyll. Yeast and mold are typesFungi. They must parasitize as theycannot make food.Examples; Candida (Thrush), Tinea(Ringworm), 9. VirusesViruses are intracellular parasitesthat consist of a DNA or RNA coresurrounded by a protein coat andsometimes a lipoprotein envelope.They invade cells and insert theirown genetic code into the host.Thus, the pirate the hosts nutrientsand organelles, multiply and infectother cells.Examples: Cold, Influenza, WestNile Virus, Avian Flu, Polio,Mono,Measles, Mumps, HBV,HCV, HIV. 10. Bloodborne Pathogens Division of Safety & HygieneHepatitis B Most common occupationally-acquired infection Blood borne, sexual contact and perinatal Virus attack livers and can cause lifelonginfection, cirrhosis of the liver, liver cancer,liver failure and death. Vaccine available. Required by OSHA. 11. Bloodborne PathogensDivision of Safety & HygieneHepatitis B Found in: Blood Vaginal Secretions Semen Saliva 12. Bloodborne PathogensDivision of Safety & HygieneSigns and Symptoms: Nausea Lack of appetite Fatigue Joint pain Dark urine Jaundice Fever 13. Bloodborne Pathogens Division of Safety & HygieneHepatitis C The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a blood-bornevirus that was previously referred to as non-A/non-B hepatitisAs many as 80-85% of people initially infectedwith HCV may become chronically infectedNo vaccine availableToday HCV is the leading reason for liver transplants 14. Bloodborne Pathogens Division of Safety & HygieneHepatitis A Not bloodborne Severity of disease Poor sanitation Raw seafood Daycare centers Vaccine 15. Hepatitis DAdefective virus that needs the HBV toexist Co-infection with HBV Chronic liver disease with cirrhosis, livercancer, and fulminant hepatitis alsopossible. 16. Bloodborne PathogensDivision of Safety & Hygiene HIV HIV infection is a viral infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that gradually destroys the immune system, resulting in infections that are hard for the body to fight. People who become infected with HIV may have no symptoms for up to 10 years, but they can still transmit the infection to others. No vaccine, no cure 17. Bloodborne PathogensDivision of Safety & Hygiene HIV Signs & Symptoms(many have all, none, or some) Night sweats Swollen glands Fever, chills Flu-like Joint Pain Fatigue Rash 18. Factors required for growthWarmMoistDarkAerobic require oxygen to liveAnerobic live and reproduce without oxygen 19. CLASSIFICATIONS OF DISEASESAND INFECTIONSENDOGENOUSEXOGENOUS NOSOCOMIAL OP ORTP UNISTIC 20. The Chain of InfectionInfectious AgentReservoir HostSusceptible HostPortal of Exit Portal of Entry Mode of Transmission 21. ASEPTIC CONTROLASEPSISCONTAMINATEDANTISEPSISDISINFECTIONSTERILIZATION 22. Bloodborne Pathogens Division of Safety & Hygiene UNIT 13:2 Exposure Control 23. Bloodborne PathogensDivision of Safety & HygienePotentially InfectiousMaterialsBlood MucusSemen Vaginal SecretionsSputumSalivaOther Body fluids Visible soiled objectsTissue/Cell specimens Mucous MembranesNon-intact skinIF IT IS WET AND FROM THE BODY, CONSIDER ITINFECTIOUS..better safe than sorry. 24. Bloodborne Pathogens Division of Safety & Hygiene Standard (Universal) Precautions An approach to infection control. All human blood and certain body fluids are treated as if known to be infectious. STANDARD PRECAUTIONS: are the rules designed to protect the patient and HCW 25. Bloodborne Pathogens Division of Safety & Hygiene Methods of Control 26. Bloodborne Pathogens Division of Safety & Hygiene Methods of Control (Cont.)Hand sanitizers with 60% or more alcohol arevery effective. Always wash hands:Visibly contaminatedAfter using bathroomBefore you eatWhen hands feel sticky Pathogens that are spores ( C-Difficile) 27. Bloodborne PathogensDivision of Safety & Hygiene Gloves Disposable - not reused Change if torn or punctured Awareness of latex allergic reactions Use of utility gloves 28. PPESyringes with protection devicesGloves with choices to avoid latexMasks with various filters (e.g N95)Face ShieldsBiohazard symbol to warn of body fluid 29. Bloodborne PathogensDivision of Safety & Hygiene Exposure IncidentA specific eye, mouth, or othermucous membrane, non-intact skinor parenteral contact with blood orother potentially infectious materialthat results from the performance ofan employees duties. 30. Bloodborne PathogensDivision of Safety & HygienePost-exposure follow-up Definition of exposure Selecting medical service Informing the employee Recordkeeping Confidentiality of results 31. Bloodborne Pathogens Division of Safety & HygieneBlood spill clean-up Use correct cidal Follow wait time Performed by someone with HBV vaccine