Biotechnology Goal 3.04: Genomics, Human Genome Project, and Applications of Biotechnology.

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Biotechnology Goal 3.04: Genomics, Human Genome Project, and Applications of Biotechnology

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BiotechnologyGoal 3.04: Genomics, Human Genome Project, and Applications of BiotechnologyBiotechnologyUsing living organisms to perform a process, or modify an existing product/

Practical Applications:Genetic/Paternity TestingMedical (Gene Therapy, Pharmaceuticals)Food/AgricultureForensic (DNA Analysis)Human Genome ProjectGenome: The full DNA sequence of an organismGoals:identify all the approximately 20,000-25,000 genes in human DNA, determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, store this information in databasesBegan world-wide effort in 1990; completed in 2003.

Scientists know where EVERY human gene is located on EVERY chromosome

Discovered that only 2% of all DNA actually codes for a protein

Only $199

Human Genome BenefitsMedicalDisease detection (newborn & adult)Gene TherapyReplacing DNA with disease with normal DNAExperimentalPossible cure for single gene disorders, like Sickle Cell AnemiaProduction of medicines (insulin)

Human Genome BenefitsFood/AgriculturalGenetically Modified Food (bigger, cheaper, extra benefits)Roundup Ready plants resistant to herbicides (kills weeds, not plants)

Genetically Modified FoodsExamples of Foods that may contain GM ingredients:General Mills & KelloggsKraftCoca~Cola & PepsiChef BoyardeeCampbellsBetty Crocker

Recombinant DNAcombines DNA from 2+ sourcesAlso called transgenic

Steps of Recombinant DNADNA Fragment is inserted into plasmid.Plasmid enters host bacteria cell.The plasmid becomes part of the host cell chromosome.DNA fragment is transcribed & translated within the host cell.A host cell produces a protein that it would not have produced naturally. How Insulin is MadeDNA from insulin producing cellPut into bacteriaBacteria divide rapidlyProduce insulin in large amounts, quickly

DNA FingerprintingObjective 3.04

DNA FingerprintingDNA is collected and cut into fragments by enzymesFragments are put into a machine called a gel electrophoresis Fragments are separated based on their sizeMakes a DNA FingerprintUsed in identifying criminals and paternity tests

DNA Fingerprints with Gel Electrophoresis

DNA is put in these wellsThe DNA fragments through the gel the shorter they are, the farther they travel. Where they stop, they leave a band

A persons DNA is donated by his or her parents.He or she could have DNA inherited from his or her mother or father, or a combination, but never have DNA that neither of his or her parents have.Shown below are the DNA patterns for: Mrs. Sillybilly [blue] Mr. Sillybilly [yellow] D1 (the Sillybilly s' biological daughter), D2 (Mr. Sillybilly 's step-daughter, child of Mrs. Sillybilly and her former husband [red]), S1 (the Sillybilly s' biological son), and S2 (the Sillybilly s' adopted son, not biologically related [his parents are light and dark green]).

Whos Your Daddy?Take the same stretch of DNA from everybody.An EcoR1 enzyme only cuts at sequence GAATTC. Marys doesnt cut at all, Bobs DNA cuts 1 time, and Larry 2 times (fig 1).The cut fragments settle as shown in fig.2Fig. 3 shows the childs DNA included. Whos the baby daddy?

Larry, you ARE the father!!!