Biology Lab Manual for FAST
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Biology Practical Manual
Batterjee Medical College Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Title: Laboratory manual Policy Linked To: Department of Biology
Type of Document:BIOLOGY
Laboratory manual Date Prepared: 7-2-2011 Effective date:
Date approved: Revision Due Date:
Prepared by:Rehana Imtiaz Concerned by:Dr.OsamaAbdelRaouf Reviewedby: Mrs.SalwaKamel
Job Title: Biology-lab Lecturer Job Title: Director of FAST Job Title:ActingDirectorofFAST
Signature: Signature: Signature:
Approved by: Dr. Khalid Batterjee
Job title: Dean of the college
NAME / STUDENT ID: ______________________________________________ GROUP: ______________________________________________
THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT MISS/MR OF HAS CARRIED OUT THE NECESSARY PRACTICAL WORK AS PRESCRIBED BY BATTER MEDICAL COLLEGE FOR SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR THE YEAR 2010-201----
_______________________________________________ HEAD OF THE Biology DEPARTMENT
Batterjee Medical CollegeFOUNDATION YEAR Biology Practical Syllabus
Syllabus 2010-2011WeekWeek 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7
Date Start End
Experiments. Blood Pressure measurement using mercury sphygmomanometer.Slide preparation of human blood. Blood cell count. Blood Types Haematocrit, packed red blood cells volume
To determine your own bleeding time.
To compare the amount of urea in three body fluid (urine, renal artery plasma, renal vein plasma. Histology of cerebellum and spinal cord.
Week 8 Week 9Week 10 Week 11
Anatomy of cerebrum, model and specimen (sheep brain) Revision quiz
Check Point , Sensory Anatomy
Model of eye Specimen of sheep eye Physiology of endocrine gland (slide slide) Stages of the mitosis in the root tip slide
Gematogenesis a. Slide of mammalian ovary. b. Slide of study of mammalian testis.
Basic techniques of microbiology.
Lab Quiz Revision Practical Exam Of Final Term
Table of contentSerial No.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Lab safety rules Blood pressure measurement Preparation of blood smear To determine your blood group To determine the packed cell volume or hematocrit ratio To determine your own bleeding time To determine the difference in composition of urea in renal artery, plasma, renal vein and urine. Microscopic structure of cerebellum and spinal cord Lobes of cerebellum and there function. To study the structure of eye ball and layers of retina. Microscopic structure of thyroid gland Stages of mitosis in root tip Gematogenesis- microscopic slide of ovary and testes
8-9 10-12 13-15 16-17 18-19 20-21 22-23 24 25-26 27-28 29-31 32-34
Distribution of grades for Biology PracticalSemesterFirst Semester 1. Lab Activities (experiments) 2. Final practical exam Second semester 1. Lab Activities (experiments) 2. Final Practical exam Total Mark for One Academic Year
% of marks10% 5% 5% 10% 5% 5% 20%
Experiment (1) Blood Pressure MeasurementIntroduction: Blood pressure or arterial blood pressure is the pressure (force per unit area) exerted by the blood on the walls of the blood vessels. The doctor measures the maximum pressure (systolic) and the lowest pressure (diastolic) made by the beating of the heart. The systolic pressure is the maximum pressure in an artery at the movement when the heart is beating and pumping blood through the body (ventricular contraction) The diastolic pressure is the minimum pressure in an artery in the moment between beats when the hearts is resting. Both the systolic and diastolic pressure measurements are important is either one is raised; it means you have high blood pressure (high hypertension). Arterial blood pressure is usually measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) using a sphygmomanometer.The average blood pressure for an adult is 120/80 mm Hg Objectives: To measure blood pressure by using mercury sphygmomanometer. To define blood pressure, and explain why blood exerts a pressure on the walls of blood vessels.
Procedure:1. A soft arm cuff is warped around the arm. A hand bulb pumps air into the cuff, gently squeezing the arm and temporarily interrupting the flow of blood in brachial artery. The pressure gauge reaches a peak (200mmHg). 2. Then the cuff is slowly deflated, letting blood flow again. As the cuff deflates and the pressure gauge gradually decreases, the return of the blood flow through the main artery in your arm can be heard using a stethoscope. 3. The first time you hear the sound, note what the reading was on the pressure gauge when the heart beat is first heard is your systolic pressure (the peak pressure as the heart contracts) 4. The reading when the pulse can first no longer be heard is your diastolic pressure (the lowest pressure as the heart relaxes between beats).
Post-Lab Question: 1. What is blood pressure? Ans:__________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 2. What is high blood pressure (hypertension)? Ans:__________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 3. How to measure blood pressure? Ans:__________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 4. What causes high blood pressure? Ans:__________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
Date_________ Experiment No: (2) Preparation of Blood SmearIntroduction. Much valuable information about the health of a patient can be obtained by a thorough and competent study of a smear of their peripheral blood. To prepare a blood smear, a drop of blood is spread on a glass slide and then stained. Wright's stain is widely used for staining blood smears. It contains eosin and methylene blue, both of which stain independently as well as in combination. Following are the different categories of blood cells. ERYTHROCYTES (Red cells): The erythrocytes are the most numerous blood cells, have biconcave shape devoid of a nucleus. The red blood cells are rich in hemoglobin, a protein able to bind oxygen for providing oxygen to tissues PLATELETS (thrombolytic): Platelets are fragments of megakaryocytic. Megakaryocytic are found in red bone marrow. The main function of platelets is to stop the loss of blood from wounds. LEUKOCYTES (White cells): Leukocytes or white cells are responsible for the defense of the organism. In the blood, they are much less numerous than red cells. Leukocytes are divided in two categories: granulocytes and a granulocytes (lymphoid cells).Each type of leukocytes is present in the blood in different proportions: Neutrophils 50-70%: Neutrophils are very active in phagocyting bacteria and are present in large amount in the pus of wounds. Unfortunately, these cells are not able to renew the lysosomes used in digesting microbes and dead after having phagocyted a few of them. Eosinophils 2-4%: Eosinophils attack parasites and phagocytes antigen-antibody complexes.
Basophils 0-1%: Secrete anti-coagulant .Even if they have a phagocytory capability, their main function is secreting substances which mediate the hypersensitivity reaction.
Lymphocyte 20-40%: Lymphocytes may vary somewhat in size, but the majority of them will measure 7-8 m (slightly larger than an erythrocyte). They have a relatively large, spherical nucleus. Lymphocytes yield antibodies and arrange them on their membrane. Monocytes 3-8%: The three most useful diagnostic features of these cells include their dull grey-blue cytoplasm, their larger size (12-15 m), and their distinctive horseshge or kidney shaped nucleus. Objective: 1. To determine red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are normal in appearance and number. 2. To distinguish between different types of white blood cells. 3. To determine their relative percentage in blood. 4. To help diagnose a range of deficiencies, diseases, and disorders involving blood cell production. Materials: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Sterilized lancet Clean microscope slide Ethyle alcohol Eosin Methylene blue
Procedure: 1. Taking the Blood: Cleans a finger. With a sterile lancet, make a puncture on a fingertip. In the meantime, keep all the materials needed ready and protected from dust. The edge of another slide in contact with the drop and allow the drop to bank evenly behind the spreader. 2. Fixing: A fixing technique consists of dipping the smear in 95% ethyl alcohol for 3-5 minutes 3. Staining: To stain a smear, take a slide with a fixed and dry smear. Put on the slide a drop of stain until it is fully covered. 4. Observation: A magnification of 40 times is enough to observe and identify the different types of cells.
Type of cells Erythrocytes platelets Leukocytes
Size (diameter) 67.5 m 2---3 m 12---15m
No. in blood 4-6million/mm3 200000-300000/mm3 50007000mm3
Question: 1. What is Blood smear? Ans:__________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________