Biology cell structure function

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Biology cell structure function

Transcript of Biology cell structure function

  • 1. Cell Structure& Function

2. Cell Theory

  • All living things are made up of cells.
  • Cells are the smallest working units of all living things.
  • All cells come from pre-existing cells through cell division.

3. Definition of Cell A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions. 4. Examples of Cells Amoeba Proteus Plant Stem Red Blood Cell Nerve Cell Bacteria 5. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes 6. Two Types of Cells

  • Prokaryotic
  • Eukaryotic

7. 1 2 Prokaryotes Cell membrane Cytoplasm 8. Prokaryotic

  • They are the simplest form of life.
  • No nucleus.
  • Do not have structures surrounded by membranes (organelles)
  • Few internal structures
  • They areunicellular _( One-celled organisms).
  • Example:Bacteria


  • are the most complex form of life.
  • They have nucleus
  • Containorganellessurrounded by membranes
  • They are multicellularorganisms (composed of many cells).
  • Most living organisms
  • Examples: animals and plants.

Eukaryotic 10. Common Characteristics

  • All cells are surrounded by a barrier called the cell membrane
  • They contain the molecule that carries biological information-DNA

11. Eukaryotic Plant Animal 12. Compare and contrastProkaryotes vs. Eukaryotes Differences Prokaryote Differences Eukaryote Similarity 13. Typical Animal Cell 14. Typical Plant Cell 15. Differentia between animal and plant cells 16. Cell Parts Organelles CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 17. ORGANELLES

  • Cytoplasm lies between the cell membrane and nucleus and contains the organelles.
  • Cytosol is a gelatin like aqueous fluid that contains salts, minerals and organic molecules

18. Mitochondria

  • Sites of chemical reactions that transfer energy from organic compounds to ATP
  • ATP- main energy source for cells
  • Cells with high energy requirements have more mitochondria ex: muscle and liver cells
  • Have 2 membranes
  • Smooth outer membrane serves as a boundary between the mitochondria and the cytosol
  • Inner membrane has many folds called Cristae they enlarge the surface area for more chemical reactions
  • Have their own DNA ( for reproduction)

They are called the POWER HOUSEof the cell 19. Ribosomes

  • Most numerous
  • Not surrounded by a membrane
  • Made up of proteins and RNA
  • RNA is packaged into the ribosomes then transported to the cytosol
  • Some ribosomes are free
  • Some are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
  • Protein is synthesized (produced) in the ribosomes
  • Proteins to be used in the cytosol free ribosomes
  • Proteins to be exported or inserted in the cell membrane ribosomes on the ER

20. Endoplasmic Reticulum

  • System of membranous tubules and sacs
  • Intracellular Highway molecules move from one part of the cell to another
  • 2 types rough and smooth
  • Rough covered by ribosomes prominent in cells that make large amounts of proteins to be exported from the cell
  • Smooth no ribosomes
  • Synthesis of steriods in gland cells
  • Regulation of calcium in muscle cells
  • Breakdown of toxic substances in liver cells

21. Golgi Apparatus

  • Processing, packaging and secreting organlle
  • System of membranes
  • Series of flattened sacs with convex shape
  • Works with the ER to modify proteins


  • Small spherical organelles
  • Enclose hydrolytic enzymes within single membranes
  • Digest proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, DNA and RNA
  • Digest old organelles, bacterias, viruses
  • Rare in plant cells


  • Maintains the shape and size of cell
  • Network of long protein strands
  • Not surrounded by a membrane
  • Participates in the movement of organelles
  • 2 major components microfilaments and microtubules
  • Microfilaments threads made of actin (protein) smallest strands
  • Microtubules largest strands that are hollow tubes help the cell divide by forming spindle fibers that extend across the cell


  • Hairlike organelles that extend from the surface of the cell
  • Assist in movement
  • Cilia short and present in large numbers
  • Flagella long and less numerous

25. Nucleus

  • Most prominent structure
  • Maintains its shape with a protein skeleton called the nuclear matrix
  • Double membrane nuclear envelope
  • Inside the envelope chromation (DNA & protein)
  • When the cell is about to divide it forms the chromosomes
  • Stores hereitary information in its DNA
  • RNA is copied from DNA
  • RNA travels from nucleus to the cytosol through small holes in the envelope nuclear pores
  • Contains the nucleolus the site where ribosomes are synthesized

26. Nucleolus

  • Inside nucleus
  • Contains RNA to build proteins
  • Site where ribosome are synthesized

27. Cell Wall

  • Most commonly found in plant cells & bacteria
  • Supports & protects cells

28. Chloroplast

  • Usually found in plant cells
  • Contains green chlorophyll
  • Where photosynthesis takes place

29. Label the parts of the cell http:// 30. Cytoplasm 31. Ans. The cell structure and function

  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
  • ATP
  • Muscle and liver2
  • Crytal
  • Cristae
  • They enlarge the surface area for more
  • Reproduction
  • Ribosome
  • Membrane
  • Proteins
  • Cytosol
  • Endoplasmic rediculum
  • Protein
  • Produced

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Hyghway Rought and smooth Ribosome Proteinsteroids 32. Ans.

  • Fedex, DHL
  • Lysosome
  • Animal
  • Cytoskeloeton
  • Shape and size
  • Membrane
  • Microfilament & microtubule
  • Spindel fiber
  • Cilial and Flagella
  • Movement
  • Nucleus
  • Nuclear envelop
  • DNE and protein
  • Heridity

Nucleus Nuclear envelop DNE and protein Heridity Nuleoulus Ribosome 33. 34. 35.

  • Name:___________Date :_____ 1/12/11
  • Quiz: cell structure and function
  • Multiple choice 1-22
  • No note can be used
  • Color and label parts of cell:
  • Animal and plant cells

36. ANIMAL CELL 37. PLANT CELL 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. The Human Cheek Cell http:// 44. The Human Cheek Cell

  • Materials
  • Microscope
  • Methylene blue
  • Toothpick
  • Slide
  • Cover slide

45. The Human Cheek Cell Procedure

  • 1. Put a drop of methylene blue on a slide. Caution: methylene blue will stain clothes and skin.
  • 2. Gently scrape the inside of your cheek with the flat side of a toothpick. Scrape lightly.
  • 3. Stir the end of the toothpick into the stain and throw the toothpick away.
  • 4. Place a cover slip onto the slide
  • 5. Use the SCANNING objective to focus. You probably will not see the cells at this power.
  • 6. Switch to low power. Cells should be visible, but they will be small and look like nearly clear purplish blobs. If you are looking at something dark purple, it is probably not a cell
  • 7. Once you think you have located a cell, switch to high power and refocus.(Remember, do NOT use the coarse adjustment knob at this point)

46. The Human Cheek Cell Low High Sketch Scanning --- Sketchthe cell at low and high power. Label thenucleus ,cytoplasm ,andcell membrane . Draw your cells to scale. 47. The Human Cheek Cell Questions

  • 1. This cell is which cell type?
  • A. animalB. plantC. prokaryotic
  • 2. The shape of this cell, overall, is:
  • A. roundB. rectangularC. other
  • 3. What stain did you use to see this cell type?
  • 4. What material does this particular stain reveal?
  • 5. Which orga