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Transcript of Biology 5-1 - Valparaiso University Slides/  · PDF fileBiology 5-1 Cellular Biology Cell...

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    5-1BiologyCellular Biology

    Cell StructureGeneral types of cellular structure: Prokaryote

    (e.g., bacteria and blue-green algae) Eukaryote

    (e.g., plants and animals)

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    5-2BiologyCellular Biology: Cell StructureProkaryotes

    Prokaryotes: Single-cell organisms with a

    primitive nucleus that lack aconfining membrane

    Reproduce asexually by binaryfission (dividing in two)

    Components of prokaryotic cells: Periplasmic space, outer

    membrane, protoplasm Chromosome Ribosomes Peptooglycan Pilus, flagella

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    5-3aBiologyCellular Biology: Cell StructureEukaryotes

    Eukaryotes: Much larger Have a definite nucleus Most often part of a multi-cell


    Common components found inanimal and plant cells:

    Mitochondria Plasma membrane Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi complex

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    5-3bBiologyCellular Biology: Cell StructureEukaryotes

    Component found in animal cells only: Lysosomes

    Components found in plant cells only: Chloroplast Tonoplast Central vacuole Starch granules Cell wall

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    5-3cBiologyCellular Biology: Cell StructureEukaryotes

    Example (FEIM):Which of the following is NOT found in a eukaryote animal cell?

    (A) mitochondria(B) nucleus(C) chloroplast(D) lysosome

    Eukaryote animal cells do not have chlorophyll or chloroplast.Therefore, the answer is (C).

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    5-3dBiologyCellular Biology: Cell StructureEukaryotes

    Example (FEIM):What is the function of the tonoplast in a eukaryote plant cell?

    (A) encloses the vacuole(B) provides a specialized cell substructure (organelle) where

    photosynthesis takes place(C) converts oxygen, O2, to ozone, O3(D) inhibits cell division

    Tonoplast encloses the vacuole. Knowledge questions of this typesometimes have possible answers that can be eliminated becausethey are nonsense or they are unrelated to the subject. Thisimproves the chances of guessing correctly. One should recognizeanswers (C) and (D) are unrelated to cell biology structure.

    Therefore, the answer is (A).

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    5-4BiologyCellular Biology: Cell Subdivision

    This table is given in the NCEES Handbook read and understand it.

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    5-5aBiologyCellular Biology: Cell Growth

    To study the cell growth rate of aspecies and how differentconditions affect the cell growth,cell cultures are grown undercontrolled conditions with acontrolled nutrient medium.

    Growth phases of bacteria:1. Lag phase2. Accelerated growth phase3. Declining growth phase4. Stationary phase5. Death phase

    The growth pattern of a controlledculture of bacteria is shown inFERM Fig. 33.3.

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    5-5bBiologyCellular Biology: Cell Growth

    Example (FEIM):What is most nearly the growth rate ofthe population in the OrganismalGrowth in Batch Culture chart in theNCEES Handbook during the loggrowth phase? Use base-10logarithms.

    The population curve at 25 h crossesthe seventh line above 104, so thepopulation is 8 x 104 at 25 h. Thepopulation curve also crosses thesecond line above 103 at 15 h, so thepopulation is 3 x 103 at 15 h.

    The graph is linear during the exponentgrowth phase. The equation of a straightline involving N (number of bacteria) andt (time in hours) islog Nt = mt + log N0

    The curve point at t = 15 h is the origin.Then, the elapsed time between the twopoints is 10 h.log 80 000 = m(10 h) + log 3000m = 1.389%/h (39%/h)

    Therefore, the answer is (B).


    (a) 23%/h

    (c) 57%/h


    (b) 39%/h

    (d) 245%/h

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    5-5cBiologyCellular Biology: Cell Growth

    The constant specific growth rate, ,applies only to the logarithmic growthphase. This quantity is normalized bydividing the growth rate, dx/dt, in cellsper unit time, by cell concentration (thenumber of cells per unit volume), x.

    The growth rate can be expressed interms of the logistic growth rate constant,k, and the carrying capacity, x, in unitsof grams per liter.

    This is a differential equation that can besolved for x in terms of k, x, t, and theinitial cell concentration, x0.

    If then the exponentialnature of the growth becomes obvious.x = x0ekt


    x0" 0 at t

    0= 0,

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    5-6BiologyCellular Biology: Characteristics of Selected Microbial Cells

    See FERM Table 33.3.

    This table is also given in the NCEES Handbook read and understand it.

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    5-7a1BiologyCellular Biology: Stoichiometry of Selected Biological Systems

    Biological reaction:(1) Aerobic production of biomass a biological chemical process using

    oxygen that reacts with an organic compound containing carbon,hydrogen, and oxygen (substrate).

    In the case shown in the NCEES Handbook,

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    5-7a2BiologyCellular Biology: Stoichiometry of Selected Biological Systems

    The degrees of reduction represent the electrons per unit of carbon inthe substrate, biomass, and product respectively relative to the valencestate of the carbon in each.

    Subscripts identify the substrate (s), biomass (b), and product (p).A high degree of reduction denotes a low degree of oxidation whichrelates the relative electrons gained (reduction) when the substratecarbon becomes biomass or product carbon.

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    5-7b1BiologyCellular Biology: Stoichiometry of Selected Biological Systems

    Carbon balance:

    Nitrogen balance:

    Electron balance:

    Energy balance:


    " 26.95 kcal/g of electrons

    Qo = heat evolved per equivalent of available electrons

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    5-7b2BiologyCellular Biology: Stoichiometry of Selected Biological Systems

    Respiratory quotient (RQ) is the CO2 produced per unit of O2.

    The yield coefficient is c for grams of cells per gram substrate, YX|S, ord for grams of product per gram substrate, YX|XP.

    Satisfying the carbon, nitrogen, and electron balances, plus knowing therespiratory coefficient and a yield coefficient, are sufficient to solve for a,b, c, d, and f coefficients.

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    5-7c1BiologyCellular Biology: Stoichiometry of Selected Biological SystemsBiological reaction:(2) Aerobic biodegradation of glucose

    cells are formed and carbon dioxideand water are the only products

    Example (FEIM):Given the following biodegradationreaction (aerobic biodegradation ofglucose with no product, ammonianitrogen source, cell production only)and RQ = 1.1, find a, b, c, and d.

    The variables and equations are slightlydifferent than the one-product case, butthe solution method is essentially thesame.

    Carbon balance: 6 = c + d

    Nitrogen balance: b = c = c(0.2)There is no product, only the biomass,so the nitrogen in the ammonia equalsthe nitrogen in the biomass (cell).

    Electron balance:s = 4 + m 2n = 4 +12 (2)(6) = 4The substrate (glucose) can becalculated or read off the compositiondata for biomass and selected organiccompounds table in the NCEESHandbook.

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    5-7c2BiologyCellular Biology: Stoichiometry of Selected Biological Systems

    The degree of reduction of the cell iscalculated from the equation for thereaction. Note that molecules containonly whole numbers of any element,but stoichiometry uses fractionalnumbers to represent the mixture ofdifferent molecules in the cell after thereaction.

    There is no product, and there are sixcarbon atoms in the substrate, so theelectron balance equation is

    There are now four equations and fourunknowns, and the equations can besolved to get the results in the NCEESHandbook (with some roundingdifferences).



    = 6"s# 4a


    c(4.2) = (6)(4)" 4a



    = 4 +#$ 2%$ 3&


    = 4 +1.8" (2)(0.5)" (3)(0.2)

    = 4.2


    a = 1.94

    b = 0.77

    c = 3.88

    d = 2.13

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    5-7dBiologyCellular Biology: Stoichiometry of Selected Biological Systems

    Biological reactions:(3) Anaerobic biodegradation of organic wastes with incomplete


    (4) Anaerobic biodegradation of organic wastes with completestabilization

    Calculations involving the anaerobic reactions are similar to theaerobic cases already discussed.

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    Toxic exposure A toxic substance has to enter the body before itcauses toxicity.

    Dermal absorption Inhalation Ingestion Absorption through the eye

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    Systemic effects Depends on level of exposure and the toxicsubstance.

    Exposure must exceed the bodys ability to excrete the substanceand/or render it harmless.

    The situation is aggravated when the substance lingers for a longtime, such as fat soluble substances.

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    Toxic effects The properties of the toxic substance and the level ofexposure can result in many different adverse effects on the body.

    Pulmonary toxicity affects the respiratory system Cardiotoxicity affects the heart Hematoxicity affects t