BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE HUMAN SKELETON OF THE HUMAN SKELETON Second Edition Edited by M. ANNE

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  • BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE HUMAN SKELETON

    Second Edition

    Edited by

    M. ANNE KATZENBERG Department of Archaeology, University of Calgary

    SHELLEY R. SAUNDERS Department of Anthropology, McMaster University

    Innodata 9780470245835.jpg

  • BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE HUMAN SKELETON

  • BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE HUMAN SKELETON

    Second Edition

    Edited by

    M. ANNE KATZENBERG Department of Archaeology, University of Calgary

    SHELLEY R. SAUNDERS Department of Anthropology, McMaster University

  • Copyright# 2008 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

    Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey Published simultaneously in Canada

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  • To our families

    to Steve and Marty M. Anne Katzenberg

    to Victor, Rob, and Barb Shelley R. Saunders

  • CONTENTS

    PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION—M. ANNE KATZENBERG AND SHELLEY R. SAUNDERS xi

    PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION—M. ANNE KATZENBERG AND SHELLEY R. SAUNDERS xv

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxi

    CONTRIBUTORS xxiii

    FOREWORD—JANE E. BUIKSTRA xxxiii

    PART I THEORY AND APPLICATION IN STUDIES OF PAST PEOPLES 1

    1 Bioarchaeological Ethics: A Historical Perspective on the Value of Human Remains 3 Phillip L. Walker

    2 Forensic Anthropology: Methodology and Diversity of Applications 41 Douglas H. Ubelaker

    3 Taphonomy and the Nature of Archaeological Assemblages 71 Ann L. W. Stodder

    vii

  • PART II MORPHOLOGICAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL ANALYSES 115

    4 Juvenile Skeletons and Growth-Related Studies 117 Shelley R. Saunders

    5 Histomorphometry of Human Cortical Bone: Applications to Age Estimation 149 Alexander G. Robling and Sam D. Stout

    6 Biomechanical Analyses of Archaeological Human Skeletons 183 Christopher B. Ruff

    7 Morphometrics and Biological Anthropology in the Postgenomic Age 207 Benedikt Hallgr|¤msson, Miriam Leah Zelditch, Trish E. Parsons, Erika Kristensen, Nathan M. Young, and Steven K. Boyd

    8 Reading Between the Lines: Dental Development and Subadult Age Assessment Using the Microstructural Growth Markers of Teeth 237 Charles M. FitzGerald and Jerome C. Rose

    9 Dental Morphology 265 G. Richard Scott

    PART III PREHISTORIC HEALTH AND DISEASE 299

    10 Dental Pathology 301 Simon Hillson

    11 Analysis and Interpretation of Skeletal Trauma 341 Nancy C. Lovell

    12 Light and Broken Bones: Examining and Interpreting Bone Loss and Osteoporosis in Past Populations 387 Sabrina C. Agarwal

    PART IV CHEMICAL AND GENETIC ANALYSES OF HARD TISSUES 411

    13 Stable Isotope Analysis: A Tool for Studying Past Diet, Demography, and Life History 413 M. Anne Katzenberg

    viii CONTENTS

  • 14 Bone Chemistry and Trace Element Analysis 443 James Burton

    15 DNA Analysis of Archaeological Remains 461 Anne C. Stone

    PART V QUANTITATIVE METHODS AND POPULATION STUDIES 485

    16 Metric Analysis of Skeletal Remains: Methods and Applications 487 Michael Pietrusewsky

    17 Nonmetric Trait Variation in the Skeleton: Abnormalities, Anomalies, and Atavisms 533 Shelley R. Saunders and Dori L. Rainey

    18 Advances in Paleodemography 561 George R. Milner, James W. Wood, and Jesper L. Boldsen

    19 Method and Theory in Paleodemography, with an Application to a Hunting, Fishing and Gathering Village from the Late Eastern Woodlands of North America 601 Richard S. Meindl, Robert P. Mensforth, and C. Owen Lovejoy

    Index 619

    CONTENTS ix

  • PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

    The preface to the first edition sets out the goals we hoped to accomplish by preparing the volume titled, Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton. In this second edition we endeavor to maintain those goals, to update recent developments in skeletal studies and particularly, to emphasize information that pro- vides the reader with a basic understanding of the various techniques and methods of investi- gating bones and teeth. Many chapters include examples, set off from the main body of the text, that illustrate or offer more detail about the particular analysis under consideration. We also provide six new chapters on topics not covered in the previous edition. These topics include taphonomic factors affecting burial assemblages, nonmetric traits of the skeleton and dentition, trauma, osteoporosis, and new developments in morphometric analysis. It is our hope that the book will be used in upper level undergraduate and graduate courses in human skeletal studies (e.g., advanced human osteology) as well as by interested professionals seeking a better understanding of advanced methods in osteological research. The chapters should provide an entry point into a particular specialty, with background information as well

    as practical guidelines, applications, and critical reviews of research approaches, including a wealth of selected references for additional reading.

    The book is divided into five parts, although considerable overlap exists and some chapters could have easily appeared in one or another section. Part I is titled “Theory and Application in Studies of Past People” and includes three chapters. As before, the first chapter, on ethical considerations of working with human skeletal remains, is presented by Phillip Walker. Walker has updated and expanded the scope of his chapter to include worldwide examples of problems and solutions to working with human remains. The second chapter, by Douglas Ubelaker, provides current perspectives on the interrelationship between forensic anthropology and more traditional studies in human osteology, arguing that these are complementary fields of inquiry. The field of forensic anthropology has gained promi- nence since the publication of the first edition of this book, with an increase in the number of academic positions in the field, and increased participation by forensic anthropologists in medico-legal investigations. The third chapter

    xi

  • in the first section is a new contribution by Ann L. Stodder, on taphonomy and human skeletal remains. Stodder draws from her experience in working with burials and specific burial con- texts in several different regions of the world to offer a comprehensive review of the various postmortem factors that affect the integrity of the skeleton after death.

    Part II is newly titled “Morphological and Developmental Analyses” and includes five chapters on development and modeling of bones and teeth. “Juvenile Skeletons and Growth Related Studies,” by Shelley Saunders, examines the problems of studying juvenile skeletal remains from archaeological sites. This chapter has been updated with new examples of applications from Saunders’ exten- sive work with historic cemeteries. Alexander Robling and Sam Stout have revised their previous contribution on histomorphometry and, once again, provide helpful appendices, including a worked example of age deter- mination from cortical bone histology and a compilation of various histomorphometric techniques for age determination from various skeletal elements. Christopher Ruff has updated his chapter on biomechanical analyses, provid- ing new examples and illustrations. Benedikt Hallgrimsson and colleagues present a new chapter on the “new morphometrics” and the importance of understanding