BIOGRAPHY OF WINSTON CHURCHILL PART - 1 cadet in the cavalry, starting his education in September...
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BIOGRAPHY OF WINSTON CHURCHILL
PART - 1
B.Sc (Silver Medalist)
M.Sc (Applied Physics)
WHAT WE WILL STUDY?
• BROKEN CHILDHOOD
• POLITICAL RISING
• IN WORLD WAR 1 AND 2
• LATER YEARS AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS INDIA
• Churchill was born at his parental home,
Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, on 30
November 1874 at which time the United
Kingdom was the dominant world power.
• His family were among the highest levels of the
British aristocracy, and thus he was born into
the country's governing elite.
• His paternal grandfather, John Spencer-
Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough, had been a
Member of Parliament (MP) for ten years, a
member of the Conservative Party who served
in the government of Prime Minister Benjamin
Disraeli. His own father, Lord Randolph
Churchill, had been elected Conservative MP
for Woodstock in 1873.
• His mother, Jennie Churchill, was from an
American family whose substantial wealth
derived from finance.
• He was unruly and bad as a child and
teachers.He didn’t behave very good with
others. As a young child, Churchill grew up in
• After performing poorly at his first two schools,
Churchill in April 1888 began attending Harrow
School, a boarding school near London. Within
weeks of his enrollment, he joined the Harrow
Rifle Corps, putting him on a path to a military
• He made three attempts to be admitted to the Royal Military Academy,
Sandhurst, only succeeding on the third. There, he was accepted as a
cadet in the cavalry, starting his education in September 1893 and
graduated in 1894.
• He had a very terrible relationship with his parents.His father called
him a failure but he realy admired his father.
• While at school, Churchill wrote emotional letters to his mother, begging
her to come see him, but she seldom came. His father died when he was
21, and it was said that Churchill knew him more by reputation than by any
close relationship they shared
• He started travelling the world visiting Cuba,Sudan andd India.Churchill
arrived in Bombay, British India, in October 1896. They were soon
transferred to Bangalore, where he shared a bungalow with Barnes.
Describing India as a "godless land of snobs and bores“.
• He showed exceptionall skills in military training. Churchill enjoyed a brief
but eventful career in the British Army at a zenith of British military power.
• While in the Army, he wrote military reports for). the Pioneer Mail and the
Daily Telegraph, and two books on his experiences, The Story of the
Malakand Field Force (1898) and The River War (1899
• In 1899, Churchill left the Army and worked as a war correspondent for the
Morning Post, a conservative daily newspaper. While reporting on the Boer
War in South Africa, he was taken prisoner by the Boers during a scouting
expedition. . He made headlines when he escaped, traveling almost
300 miles to Portuguese territory in Mozambique
• In 1900, Churchill became a member of Parliament in the Conservative Party for
Oldham, a town in Manchester. Following his father into politics, he also followed
his father's sense of independence, becoming a supporter of social reform. At the
age of 25, he was now an MP.
• In February 1901, Churchill took his seat in the House of Commons, where his
maiden speech gained widespread press coverage. He opposed an increase in
army funding, suggesting that any additional military expenditure should go to the
• In May 1903, the Conservative MP Joseph Chamberlain called for the introduction
of tariffs on goods imported into the British Empire from outside; Churchill became a
leading Conservative voice against such economic protectionism.
• In February 1903, he was among 18 Conservative MPs who voted against the
government's increase in military expenditure.Unconvinced that the Conservative
Party was committed to social justice, Churchill switched to the Liberal Party in
• He was elected a member of Parliament in 1908, and was appointed to
the prime minister's cabinet as president of the Board of Trade. As
president Churchill joined newly appointed Chancellor David Lloyd George
in opposing the expansion of the British Navy. He introduced several
reforms for the prison system, introduced the first minimum wage and
helped set up labor exchanges and unemployment insurance.
• Churchill also assisted in the passing of the People's Budget, which
introduced taxes on the wealthy to pay for new social welfare programs.
The budget passed in the House of Commons in 1909, and was initially
defeated in the House of Lords before being passed in 1910.
• Named first lord of the Admiralty in 1911, Churchill helped modernize
the British Navy, ordering that new warships be built with oil-fired
instead of coal-fired engines. He was one of the first to promote
military aircraft and set up the Royal Navy Air Service. He was so
enthusiastic about aviation that he took flying lessons to understand
firsthand its military potential.
WORLD WAR 1
• Following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in
June 1914, there was growing talk of war in Europe. Churchill began
readying the navy for conflict, convinced that if Germany attacked France
then Britain would inevitably join the war
• Churchill remained in his post through the start of World War I, but was
forced out for his part in proposing what became the disastrous Battle of
Gallipoli, and resigned from the government toward the end of 1915. In
1917, he was appointed minister of munitions for the final year of the war,
overseeing the production of tanks, airplanes and munitions.
• From 1919 to 1922, Churchill served as minister of war and air and
colonial secretary under Prime Minister David Lloyd George.
Fractures in the Liberal Party led to the defeat of Churchill as a member of
Parliament in 1922, and he rejoined the Conservative Party
BIOGRAPHY OF WINSTON CHURCHILL
PART - 2
B.Sc (Silver Medalist)
M.Sc (Applied Physics)
• Churchill accepted the post of Chancellor of the Exchequer in Stanley
Baldwin's Unionist government, and formally rejoined the Conservative
Party as Chancellor of the Exchequer Churchill oversaw Britain's
disastrous return to the Gold Standard, which resulted in deflation,
unemployment, and the miners' strike that led to the General Strike
• The return to the pre-war exchange rate and to the Gold Standard
depressed industries The Conservative government was defeated in the
1929 general election. When Ramsay MacDonald formed the National
Government in 1931, Churchill was not invited to join the Cabinet. He
was at the low-point in his career, in a period known as "the
• In 1932, Churchill accepted the presidency of the newly founded New
Commonwealth Society, a peace organisation which he described in 1937
as "one of the few peace societies that advocates the use of force, if
possible overwhelming force, to support public international law
WORLD WAR 2
• Churchill, holidaying in Spain when the Germans reoccupied the
Rhineland in February 1936.Horrified with the declaration of war
UK,FRANCE,GERMANY AND ITALY signed the Munich agreement on
30 september 1938 giving certain part of Czechoslovakia to
• Chamberlain returned to London as triumphant but Churchill had a
different view.He didn’t like this initiative and knew that Hitler will go for
war and he told to chose between WAR AND SHAME.
• On 3 September 1939, the day Britain declared war on Germany following
the outbreak of the Second World War, Churchill was appointed First Lord
of the Admiralty, the same position he had held during the first part of the
First World War. As such he was a member of Chamberlain's small War
• As Germany began controlling its neighbors, Churchill had become a
staunch critic of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain's policy of
appeasement toward the Nazis.
“WE SHALL NEVER SURRENDER”
• On 10 May 1940, hours before the German invasion of France by a
lightning advance, it became clear that, following failure in Norway, the
country had no confidence in Chamberlain's prosecution of the war and so
Chamberlain resigned.Churchill replaced him and soon after the
invasion of France he took the command.