BIOGRAPHY OF WINSTON CHURCHILL PART - 1 cadet in the cavalry, starting his education in September...

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Transcript of BIOGRAPHY OF WINSTON CHURCHILL PART - 1 cadet in the cavalry, starting his education in September...


    PART - 1



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    • IN WORLD WAR 1 AND 2


  • • Churchill was born at his parental home,

    Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, on 30

    November 1874 at which time the United

    Kingdom was the dominant world power.

    • His family were among the highest levels of the

    British aristocracy, and thus he was born into

    the country's governing elite.

    • His paternal grandfather, John Spencer-

    Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough, had been a

    Member of Parliament (MP) for ten years, a

    member of the Conservative Party who served

    in the government of Prime Minister Benjamin

    Disraeli. His own father, Lord Randolph

    Churchill, had been elected Conservative MP

    for Woodstock in 1873.


  • • His mother, Jennie Churchill, was from an

    American family whose substantial wealth

    derived from finance.

    • He was unruly and bad as a child and

    teachers.He didn’t behave very good with

    others. As a young child, Churchill grew up in


    • After performing poorly at his first two schools,

    Churchill in April 1888 began attending Harrow

    School, a boarding school near London. Within

    weeks of his enrollment, he joined the Harrow

    Rifle Corps, putting him on a path to a military



  • • He made three attempts to be admitted to the Royal Military Academy,

    Sandhurst, only succeeding on the third. There, he was accepted as a

    cadet in the cavalry, starting his education in September 1893 and

    graduated in 1894.

    • He had a very terrible relationship with his parents.His father called

    him a failure but he realy admired his father.

    • While at school, Churchill wrote emotional letters to his mother, begging

    her to come see him, but she seldom came. His father died when he was

    21, and it was said that Churchill knew him more by reputation than by any

    close relationship they shared

    • He started travelling the world visiting Cuba,Sudan andd India.Churchill

    arrived in Bombay, British India, in October 1896. They were soon

    transferred to Bangalore, where he shared a bungalow with Barnes.

    Describing India as a "godless land of snobs and bores“.



    • He showed exceptionall skills in military training. Churchill enjoyed a brief

    but eventful career in the British Army at a zenith of British military power.

    • While in the Army, he wrote military reports for). the Pioneer Mail and the

    Daily Telegraph, and two books on his experiences, The Story of the

    Malakand Field Force (1898) and The River War (1899

    • In 1899, Churchill left the Army and worked as a war correspondent for the

    Morning Post, a conservative daily newspaper. While reporting on the Boer

    War in South Africa, he was taken prisoner by the Boers during a scouting

    expedition. . He made headlines when he escaped, traveling almost

    300 miles to Portuguese territory in Mozambique


    • In 1900, Churchill became a member of Parliament in the Conservative Party for

    Oldham, a town in Manchester. Following his father into politics, he also followed

    his father's sense of independence, becoming a supporter of social reform. At the

    age of 25, he was now an MP.

    • In February 1901, Churchill took his seat in the House of Commons, where his

    maiden speech gained widespread press coverage. He opposed an increase in

    army funding, suggesting that any additional military expenditure should go to the


    • In May 1903, the Conservative MP Joseph Chamberlain called for the introduction

    of tariffs on goods imported into the British Empire from outside; Churchill became a

    leading Conservative voice against such economic protectionism.

    • In February 1903, he was among 18 Conservative MPs who voted against the

    government's increase in military expenditure.Unconvinced that the Conservative

    Party was committed to social justice, Churchill switched to the Liberal Party in



    • He was elected a member of Parliament in 1908, and was appointed to

    the prime minister's cabinet as president of the Board of Trade. As

    president Churchill joined newly appointed Chancellor David Lloyd George

    in opposing the expansion of the British Navy. He introduced several

    reforms for the prison system, introduced the first minimum wage and

    helped set up labor exchanges and unemployment insurance.

    • Churchill also assisted in the passing of the People's Budget, which

    introduced taxes on the wealthy to pay for new social welfare programs.

    The budget passed in the House of Commons in 1909, and was initially

    defeated in the House of Lords before being passed in 1910.

    • Named first lord of the Admiralty in 1911, Churchill helped modernize

    the British Navy, ordering that new warships be built with oil-fired

    instead of coal-fired engines. He was one of the first to promote

    military aircraft and set up the Royal Navy Air Service. He was so

    enthusiastic about aviation that he took flying lessons to understand

    firsthand its military potential.


    • Following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in

    June 1914, there was growing talk of war in Europe. Churchill began

    readying the navy for conflict, convinced that if Germany attacked France

    then Britain would inevitably join the war

    • Churchill remained in his post through the start of World War I, but was

    forced out for his part in proposing what became the disastrous Battle of

    Gallipoli, and resigned from the government toward the end of 1915. In

    1917, he was appointed minister of munitions for the final year of the war,

    overseeing the production of tanks, airplanes and munitions.

    • From 1919 to 1922, Churchill served as minister of war and air and

    colonial secretary under Prime Minister David Lloyd George.

    Fractures in the Liberal Party led to the defeat of Churchill as a member of

    Parliament in 1922, and he rejoined the Conservative Party

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    PART - 2



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    • Churchill accepted the post of Chancellor of the Exchequer in Stanley

    Baldwin's Unionist government, and formally rejoined the Conservative

    Party as Chancellor of the Exchequer Churchill oversaw Britain's

    disastrous return to the Gold Standard, which resulted in deflation,

    unemployment, and the miners' strike that led to the General Strike

    of 1926.

    • The return to the pre-war exchange rate and to the Gold Standard

    depressed industries The Conservative government was defeated in the

    1929 general election. When Ramsay MacDonald formed the National

    Government in 1931, Churchill was not invited to join the Cabinet. He

    was at the low-point in his career, in a period known as "the

    wilderness years“.

    • In 1932, Churchill accepted the presidency of the newly founded New

    Commonwealth Society, a peace organisation which he described in 1937

    as "one of the few peace societies that advocates the use of force, if

    possible overwhelming force, to support public international law


    • Churchill, holidaying in Spain when the Germans reoccupied the

    Rhineland in February 1936.Horrified with the declaration of war

    UK,FRANCE,GERMANY AND ITALY signed the Munich agreement on

    30 september 1938 giving certain part of Czechoslovakia to


    • Chamberlain returned to London as triumphant but Churchill had a

    different view.He didn’t like this initiative and knew that Hitler will go for

    war and he told to chose between WAR AND SHAME.

    • On 3 September 1939, the day Britain declared war on Germany following

    the outbreak of the Second World War, Churchill was appointed First Lord

    of the Admiralty, the same position he had held during the first part of the

    First World War. As such he was a member of Chamberlain's small War


    • As Germany began controlling its neighbors, Churchill had become a

    staunch critic of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain's policy of

    appeasement toward the Nazis.


    • On 10 May 1940, hours before the German invasion of France by a

    lightning advance, it became clear that, following failure in Norway, the

    country had no confidence in Chamberlain's prosecution of the war and so

    Chamberlain resigned.Churchill replaced him and soon after the

    invasion of France he took the command.