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    Control of Volatile Organic Compound

    (VOC) and Odorous Emissions usingBiofilters

    Dr. Suchismita Bhattacharya

    SIES BRSI Workshop on Recent Advances inMedical, Plant and Enviro Biotechnologies

    January 13-14, 2006

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    Contents

    Introduction to Biofiltration

    Types of Biofilters and Configurations

    Research at the New Jersey Institute ofTechnology

    VOC removal methods and comparison

    Practical Applications

    Case Study

    Conclusions

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    The problem

    Volatile Organic Compounds

    Odors

    Removal Methods Chemical Scrubbing

    Activated Carbon Adsorption

    Thermal Oxidation/incineration

    Catalytic Oxidation Absorption on Activated Carbon

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    Types of Biofiltration

    Based on Operational mode Biofilters

    Packing contains nutrients

    Possibility of clogging of biomass

    Accumulation of acidic products

    Biotrickling filters Continuous nutrient recycle

    Removal of dead biomass

    pH control possible

    Based on Packing material Organic media

    Peat, wood chips, soil

    Synthetic media

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    Synthetic Packing Media

    High Density polypropylene

    media 132 ft2/ft3

    PVC hollow polymeric spheres

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    Biofilter Configurations

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    Biotrickling Filter Configurations

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    Biotrickling Filter Configurations

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    Possible Substrates

    Substrate Bio-degradibility

    Aliphatic Hydrocarbons (Methane, Propane) Low-Moderate

    Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    (Benzene, Toluene, Xylene)

    Moderate -Good

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Carbon tetrachloride, Chloroform

    Trichloroethylene (cometabolic)

    O-Dichlorobenzene, monochlorobenzene

    Low

    Moderate

    LowAldehydes, Esters, Ketones Good

    Ammonia

    Hydrogen Sulfide

    Nitrogen oxide

    Good

    Good

    Poor

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    Schematic of BTF Unit at NJIT

    S

    S2

    1

    3

    45

    6

    7

    8 8

    9

    1110

    MEDIUM WATER

    AIR

    S

    1. Air pump, 2. Rotameter Assembly, 3. Humidification tower, 4. Ethanol tank, 5. o-DCB tank, 6.

    Biotrickling Filter, 7. Tank for recirculating medium, 8. Peristaltic pump, 9. Flow meter, 10. pH

    Meter, 11. pH Electrode, S=Sampling Port. (Not to scale)

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    How it appears

    Clean

    Packing

    Biomass on

    Packing

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    Biotrickling Filter Model

    Assumptions

    ED,i,

    i

    i

    LiLi

    Gi

    G

    m

    CCK

    dh

    dCu

    O

    GO

    LOLO

    GO

    G

    m

    CCK

    dh

    dCu

    With boundary conditions

    ;GDiGD

    CC

    ;GEiGE

    CC

    ;GOiGO

    CC at 0h

    No axial concentration gradients in the gas and liquid filmsNegligible mass transfer resistance from the bulk liquid to thebiofilm.The liquid film is modeled as a CSTR.The density of the biofilm and biomass concentration.At equilibrium, the concentration at the air/liquid interface followsHenrys law.Diffusion and reaction in the biofilm can be described by using abiodegradation effectiveness factor;

    Balances In the gas phase

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    Model Equations

    Balances In the liquid phase

    )()0( HhChC LDLD , )()0( HhChC LELE , )()0( HhChC LOLO

    )(),(

    )(),(

    LOLELDE

    OE

    S

    LVLVOE

    LOLELDD

    OD

    S

    LVLVODLO

    O

    GO

    LO

    LO

    L

    CfCCY

    AXX

    CfCCY

    AXXC

    m

    CK

    dh

    dCu

    )(),()(),( LOLDLEEE

    SVELOLDLEE

    E

    SVLLLE

    e

    GELC

    LEL CfCC

    Y

    AXCfCC

    Y

    AXC

    m

    CK

    dh

    dCu

    )(),()(),( LOLDLEDD

    SVDLOLDLED

    D

    SVLLLD

    D

    GDLD

    LDL CfCC

    Y

    AXCfCC

    Y

    AXC

    m

    CK

    dh

    dCu

    Mass Transfer Reaction in liquid Reaction in biofilm

    With boundary conditions

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    Validation of the Model

    Percent Removal Removal Rate

    (gm-3

    -reactor h-1

    )

    Inlet

    Concentration

    (gm-3

    ) Experimental predicted Experimental Predicted

    Error %

    (Rpred-

    Rexp)/Rexp

    t = 4.2 min ; QL = 8.7 Lh-1

    o-DCB 0.91 95.88 92.57 12.46 12.14 -2.60

    Ethanol 2.51 95.38 98.32 34.20 35.38 3.46

    o-DCB 3.35 90.25 90.19 43.19 43.37 0.43

    Ethanol 2.35 97.35 98.35 32.68 33.13 1.38

    o-DCB 2.11 95.24 91.47 28.71 27.77 -3.27

    Ethanol 2.62 95.38 98.27 35.70 36.92 3.43

    t = 4.00 min ; QL = 4.2 Lh-1

    o-DCB 2.20 85.88 85.62 26.99 27.05 0.22

    Ethanol 2.57 94.36 97.19 34.64 35.95 3.77

    o-DCB 3.50 81.89 82.30 40.95 41.16 0.51

    Ethanol 2.51 92.76 97.19 33.26 35.11 5.55

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    VOC Removal Technologies

    Technology Air Flow rate Concentration in ppmv

    Condensation 200 20,000 m3/h

    (120-12,000 SCFM)

    50-200 g/m3

    (2.8 % - 11.2% by volume)

    Cyro-Condensation 30-600 m3/h

    (20 -400 SCFM)

    5-90 g/m3

    (0.28 % - 5% by volume)

    Scrubbing 200 20,000 m3/h

    (120-12,000 SCFM)

    10-40 g/m3

    (0.56 % - 2.3% by volume)

    Incineration 10,000 100,000 m3/h

    (6000-60,000 SCFM)

    8-140 g/m3

    (0.5 % - 8% by volume)

    Catalytic Oxidation 10,000 100,000 m3/h

    (6000-60,000 SCFM)

    1-10 g/m3

    (500 ppmv 6000 ppmv)

    Regenerative

    Adsorption

    100-10,000 m3/h

    (60-6,000 SCFM)

    1-10 g/m3

    (500 ppmv 6000 ppmv)Non-RegenerativeAdsorption

    10-60 m3/h

    (6-40 SCFM)

    0-5.0 g/m3

    (

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    Cost Comparison

    Biofiltration Thermal treatment

    with Concentrators

    Thermal treatment

    without

    Concentrators

    Capital Cost $1.4 million $1.8 million $0.9 million

    Operating Cost for

    ten years

    $820,000 $7,100,000 $10,955,000

    Natural gas Nil $0.65-$0.7 million/year

    $1.05-$1.1 million/year

    Electricity $42,500/ year

    (2000 kWh/day)

    $35,000/year (1700

    kWh/day)

    $20, 500/year (1000

    kWh/day)

    Water $12,500/year

    (1,100 cu.ft./day)

    Nil Nil

    Bed Replacement $180,000/four years Nil Nil

    Removal Efficiency 85% >95% >95%

    Cost/Ton of VOC

    removed over Ten

    years

    $5,800 $20,800 $27,700

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    Technology Suppliers

    Aromatrix Technologies Pte Ltd

    Singapore

    S&H GmbH (Zeestow/Germany)

    PPC Biofilter: Airphase Biofilters & Bioscrubbers

    Texas, USA

    PRD Tech Inc.

    Ohio, USA. Biospeedup

    Biorem Technologies Inc

    Ontario, Canada Biomix, Biosorbens

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    Biotrickling Filter Applications

    Air at Effluent, Waste Water Treatment Plants Odor, Hydrogen Sulfide, VOCs

    Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Mycobacteria,Acetobacteriaceal

    Thiobacillus

    VOCs from Microelectronics Industry

    Toluene, Acetone, Trichloroethylene Forest Products industry

    -pinene (55 C), Methanol (70 C) Thermophillic bacteria

    Vapors from Bathtub manufacturing facility Styrene

    Flue gas from Coal based power Plant SO2 removal

    Off-gases from Bakery plant Ethanol

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    Biofilter Applications

    Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing

    Propylene Glycol, Monomethyl Ether Acetate

    Vinyl Resin Production

    MEK, Toluene

    Animal Rendering Plant

    H2S, VOC

    Waste Water Pumping Station

    H2S, Dimethyl Sulfide, Methyl Mercaptan, Dimethyl

    Disulfide

    Sludge Conditioning process

    Odor Treatment

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    Feasibility of Biofiltration

    Gas Stream Specification VOC specification. Use of flame ionization detector (FID) or GC/MS

    Temperature.

    Relative humidity

    Particulate loading, including condensables.

    Air flow and volume to be treated

    Applicability of Biofiltration Mixture or single substrate

    Production of acid during biomass metabolism

    Temperature: For mesophilic bacteria 10-40 C.

    Humidity of Air should be close to saturation

    If the particulate loading is water soluble and biodegradable, 0.034 g/std.m3

    may be allowed. If the particulate loading is not water soluble and notbiodegradable, a maximum of 0.009 g/std.m3 is allowed.

    Pretreatment may be required for warmer air or air containing particulates

    Pilot Studies and Data analysis

    Economic analysis

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    Case Study: Conversion of ChemicalScrubber to Biotrickling Filter

    Treatment of odorous emissions from waste water treatment plant Air flow rate 16,000m3h-1 (9,600cfm)

    Inlet H2S concentration 5-35 ppm

    Existing chemical scrubbers modified: Random Packing replaced by polyurethane foam packing 4 cm cubes

    with 600m2m-3