Biodiversity of karnataka at a glan

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  1. 1. - 1 - GOVERNMENT OF KARNATAKA BIODIVERSITY OF KARNATAKA At a Glance KARNATAKA BIODIVERSITY BOARD (Forest, Ecology and Environment Department)) Dr. R.C.Prajapati, I.F.S APCCF & Member Secretary KARNATA K A BIODIVERS ITY BOARD Ground Floor, Vanavikas, 18th Cross, Malleshwaram, Bangalore-560 003 Ph : 080- 23448783, Fax : 080-23440535 E-mail : kbb.kar@gmail.com Website :www.kbb.kar.nic.in 2010 Lion fish
  2. 2. - 2 - INDEX Sl No Contents Page No 1 Biodiversity of Karnataka Introduction 1 2 Coastal Zone.. 2 3 Mangroves in Karnataka.. 3 4 The Western Ghats 4 5 Highlights.. 6 6 Wildlife of Karnataka 7 7 The Eastern Plains Biodiversity.. 10 8 Fishes Biodiversity. 10 9 Freshwater fishes.. 12 10 Marine fishes of Karnataka. 12 11 Threatened fishes of Karnataka. 13 12 Medicinal Plants Biodiversity.. 15 13 Birds Biodiversity 20 14 Orchids.. 22 15 Butterflies.. 25 16 Current status and threat to Biodiversity. 29 17 Impacts of Pollutants 31 18 Biodiversity . Goals 33 19 Horticulture Biodiversity.. 34 20 Agro Biodiversity.. 47 21 Domestic Animal Diversity... 60 22 Coral reef Ecosystem .... 66 23 Agro Biodiversity of Karnataka... 73
  3. 3. - 3 - BIODIVERSITYOFKARNATAKA Introduction Karnataka, one of the Southern states of Indiahas3.83Millionhaofrecordedforest area which is around 20 percent of its geographical area. Karnataka is endowed withmostmagnificentforestsinthecountry ranging from majestic evergreen forests of theWesternGhatstothescrubjunglesofthe plains.TheWesternGhatsofKarnatakaare one of the 25 global priority hotspots for conservation and one of the two on the Indian subcontinent. Several economically important species such as Sandalwood, Rosewood,Teak,Whitecedargrownaturally intheseforests.Karnatakaforestisendowed withrichwildlife,harbors25percentofthe elephant population of India, 10% of the Tiger population. The state has 5 National parks and 21 sanctuaries comprising about 17.3%oftotalforestareaasprotectedarea forwildlifeandbiodiversity.Thestateranks 4thamongallthestateandunionterritories inrespectofareaundertreecover. forestWesternGhat KarnatakaForest EvergreenForestWesternghats The State of Karnataka is a part of highly biodiversityrichregionsofIndia.TheWestern Ghats of Karnataka is one of the mega biodiversities of the world. The State is endowed with great diversity of climate, topography and soil. Karnataka has great diversityofspecies,includingthehumanbeing which has co evolved since centuries. Geographically the State can be divided into three major zones. With the Western Ghats (Sahyadri)formingamajorwaterdivide,there areshortandswiftflowingriversinthewest draining into the Arabian sea. Notable among them are Sharavati, Kali, Netravati, Bedthi/Gangavalli, Aghanashini, Varahi and Chakra. To the east of the major divide, flow theriverKrishnaandCauvery.Amajorpartof the upstream of river Krishna and its tributaries Tungabhadra, Ghataprabha, Malaprabha,BhimaandVedavatiflowthrough northern Karnataka, pass through Andhra PradeshbeforejoiningtheBayofBengal.The Cauvery river in the south flows down the eastern slopes of the ghats, passes through Tamil Nadu before joining the Bay of Bengal. The main tributaries are Hemavathi, Kabini, Arkavati,Shimsha,Palar,UttaraandDakshina Pinakini, Manjira and Karanja are the only
  4. 4. - 4 - tributariesofriverGodavaryfoundwithinthe State boundary. Karnatakaconsistsof3regions1.CoastalZone,2.TheWesternGhats,3.TheEastern Plains. 1.CoastalZone Karnatakacoastlineextendsoveralength of 320 kilometers with numerous river mouths, lagoons, bays, creeks, cliffs, sand dunesandlongbeaches.Karnatakahasno major delta formations. The shelf off Karnataka has an average width of 80 kilometersandthedepthofshelfbreakis between90and120meters.Thereare26 estuarieswithmorethan70000hawater spreadareaand8000haofbrackishwater area, making the 3 coastal districts of Karnataka very rich in marine, estuarine and riverine biodiversity. 14 rivers which originateinWesternghatsrunwestwards andjointheArabiansea.KarnatakaCostal soilisamixtureoflateriterockandclay. BrahminyKite MangroveForests TheWalkingtreesRhizophora Mucronanstillroots Therearefewislandsofthecoastsuchas St.Marysisland,4kilometersfromMalpe. Coastal areas are some of the most productive and important habitat of the biosphere including estuaries, backwaters and coastal wetlands. There are 14 coral speciesand4spongespeciesfoundinthis region such as Dendrophyllion Sp. Turbinana Sp, Goniastrea pectinatu che. Small gaint clams (Tridacna maxiona) are protected under the Indian wildlife protection Act. There are about 62 phytoplankton; 78 species of sea weeds (sangassam ilicifolium), 2 species of sea grass, 115 zooplankton such as Acartia clausii, Acrocalanus gibber, Euphausia diomedeae, Stylocheiron armatum etc are observedalongtheKarnatakacoastsapart from these 234 species of Mollusce out of which 3 are threatened such as Tridacna maxima, Lambis chiragra and placenta. placenta.33speciesofshrimpswerefirst recorded from Karnataka coasts recently. 103speciesofcrabs,5speciesofstarfish, 2speciesofseaurchius,onespeciesofsea cucumber have been observed along the coasts.390marinefishspecies,3speciesof seaturtles,4speciesofwhales,4speciesof dolphins are commonly seen along the
  5. 5. - 5 - coasts.Existenceofrichfringingcoralreef ecosystemsurroundingtheNethraniIsland canbeobserved.
  6. 6. - 6 - The coast has 14 species of mangroves belonging to 8 families. The Mangroves species available in the Coastal Zone of Karnataka are Rhizophora mucronata, Acanthus elicifolius, Acrostichum aureum, Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia marina, Avicennia officinalis, Bruguiera cylindrical. Humanizenra, Racemosa, Excoecaria, Agallocha, Protersia, Coaretata, Bruguiera,gymnorrhiza,Rhizophoraapiculata,Sonneratiaalbaetc. MangrovesinKarnataka Karnatakahasacoastlineofover320kilometers.Fourteenriversandseveralsmallrivulets, whichoriginateintheWesternGhatscutacrosstheCoasttojointheArabianSea.Towards thecoast,thesaltwatertidesfromtheseatravelseveralKilometersinteriorthroughtheriver mouthsprovidingcongenialhabitatsformangroves.MostMangrovesareofthefringingtype in linear formations along the river or estuarine banks. Where the estuaries are wider, especiallyinSwarnaSitaKodi,Gangoli,(towardsthemouthofHaladiChakraKollurrivers), AghanashiniandKalithereareseveralremarkablelocationsformangroves. AcanthusilicifoliusBruguieragymnorrhizainflowers Mangrove swamps develop only where coastal physiography and energy conditions are favorable. Mangroves develop best in the region, experiencing abundant rainfall, evenly distributed throughout the year and when the climate is very much regular. The Coastal Karnatakaisaregionofhighhumidity.Therainfallherevariesfrom2500mmtoslightlyover 3000mm,mostofitisseasonalduringJuneSeptember.KarnatakaCoastsoilisamixtureof lateriterockandclay. MangrovesSpeciesofKarnataka Sl.No. Family Species 1 Acanthaceae Acanthusilicifolius 2 Combretaceae Lumnitzeraracemosa 3 Euphorbiaceae Excoecariaagallocha 4 Myrsinaceae Aegicerascorniculatum 5 Poaceae Porteresiacoarctata 6 Rhizophoraceae Bruguieracylindrica Bruguieragymnorrhiza Kandeliacandel Rhizophoraapiculata Rhizophoramucronata 7 Sonneratiaceae Sonneratiaalba Sonneratiacaseolaris 8 Verbenaceae Avicenniamarina Avicenniaofficinalis
  7. 7. - 7 - 2.TheWesternGhats The Western Ghats one of the 34 biodiversity hotspots of the world is a chainofmountainrangesstretchingNorth South along the western peninsular India forabout1600Kms.WesternGhatsarethe habitatsfortheelephantsandendangered lion tailed macaque. Western Ghats are also known as Sahyadri mountain ranges inKarnataka.ItrunsNorthtoSouthalong theWesternedgeofDeccanPlateau.60% ofWesternGhatsarelocatedinKarnataka. The average elevation is about 1200 metersMSLandreceivesrainfallbetween 3000 and 4000mm. the average annual temperatureisaround15C.Themonsoon seasonrunsbetweenJuneandSeptember. TropicalEvergreenForestsinWesternGhats Forest types found are tropical evergreen, moist and dry deciduous, high altitude sholas, savannasandscrubs.Thereareover4500speciesoffloweringplants(38%endemic)330 butterflies(11%endemic),156reptiles(62%endemics)508speciesbirds(4%endemics) 150mammals(12%endemics)289fishes(41%endemics)135amphibians(75%endemics) areamongtheknownbiodiversityofWesternGhats. Therichbiodiversitycoupledwithhigherendemismcanbeattributedtothehumidtropical climate, topographical and geographical characters. Western Ghats form an important watershedfortheentirepeninsularIndia,andisasourceofwestflowingriversandthree majoreastflowingrivers.TheWesternGhatsbelongtooneoftheoldestmountainrangesof theplanet;harbornumerouselementsoffloraandfaunahavinglinagetotheGondavanaland. TheimportantendemictreespeciesoftheregionareDipterocarpusindicus,Hopeaparivflora, Myristica fauna, Gymnacranthera canarica, Vateria indica, Pinanga dicksonal Semi carpus Kathalekanensisisoneoftheloftyevergreentreeswhichhavebeendiscoveredforthefirst timeintheMyristicaswampsofWesternGhats. BIODIVERSITYOFKARNATAKA NumberofSpecies..1.2lakhs Floweringplants.4500species Birds..508species Mammals.....150species Reptiles.156species Amphibians..135species Fishes(marine&brackishwater)...405species Fishes(freshwater).289species Butterflies.....330speices Medicinalplants....1493specieswhich Includes300speciesincommercialuse.
  8. 8. - 8 - In Western Ghat of Karnataka important mountain peak are Mullayanagiri, Kudremukh, Pushpagiri,Kemmangundi,Bababudangirietc.Theregionhasatleast325globallythreatened speciesavailableinWesternGhatsofKarnataka. WesternGhatshavesomeoftheimportantprotectedareassuchasNagarahole,Bandipura, Kuduremukh, National Parks, Dandeli, Bhadra, Pushpagiri, Brahmagiri and Talakaveri WildlifeSanctuaries. SeveraleconomicallyimportantspeciessuchasSantalamalbum,DalbergiaLatifolia,Tectona grandis, Dyso