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Biochemistry Demystifi ed
Linear Algebra Demystified Macroeconomics Demystified Management Accounting Demystified Math Proofs Demystified Math Word Problems Demystified MATLAB® Demystified Medical Billing and Coding Demystified Medical-Surgical Nursing Demystified Medical Terminology Demystified Meteorology Demystified Microbiology Demystified Microeconomics Demystified Nanotechnology Demystified Nurse Management Demystified OOP Demystified Options Demystified Organic Chemistry Demystified Personal Computing Demystified Pharmacology Demystified Physics Demystified Physiology Demystified Pre-Algebra Demystified Precalculus Demystified Probability Demystified Project Management Demystified Psychology Demystified Quality Management Demystified Quantum Field Theory Demystified Quantum Mechanics Demystified Real Estate Math Demystified Relativity Demystified Robotics Demystified Sales Management Demystified Signals and Systems Demystified Six Sigma Demystified Spanish Demystified sql Demystified Statics and Dynamics Demystified Statistics Demystified Technical Analysis Demystified Technical Math Demystified Trigonometry Demystified uml Demystified Visual Basic 2005 Demystified Visual C# 2005 Demystified Vitamins and Minerals Demystified XML Demystified
Biochemistry Demystifi ed
Sharon Walker David McMahon
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ABOUT THE AUTHORS
SHARON WALKER, PH.D., is a Diplomat of the American Board of Toxicology (DABT) and has done extensive research in various areas of biomedicine. She has taught graduate courses in immunology, epidemiology, cell biology, and statistics. Dr. Walker is the author of Biotechnology Demystified.
DAVID MCMAHON holds advanced degrees in physics and mathematics, and works as a researcher at a national laboratory. He has engaged in a wide variety of areas including fusion energy research and quantum information science. David has an interest in the biological sciences and participated for several years in research on the role of neurotransmitters in attention deficit disorder.
CHAPTER 1 The Chemistry of Biomolecules 1 Review of Basic Chemical Concepts 1 Forces That Hold Atoms and Molecules Together 2 Forces That Drive Reactions 8 The Unique Measurements of Hydrogen Ion
Concentration—pH 18 The Unique Properties of the Carbon Atom 20 The Importance of Molecular
Arrangement—Stereochemistry 23 Summary 26 Quiz 29
CHAPTER 2 Cell Structures and Cell Division 31 Introduction 31 Cell Theory 32 The Three Domains of Life 32 Cell Containment 35 Introduction to Cell Organelles 38 Summary 47 Quiz 49
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CHAPTER 3 Carbohydrates 53 Monosaccharide 54 Reducing and Nonreducing Sugars 63 Derivatives of Carbohydrates 63 Glycosidic Bond and Disaccharides 65 Polysaccharides 68 Glycoconjugates 70 Summary 71 Quiz 71
CHAPTER 4 Lipids 75 Fatty Acids 76 Triglycerides 80 Sphingolipids 81 Nonsaponifi able Lipids 82 Cholesterol 84 An Overview of the Cell Membrane 85 Summary 89 Quiz 89
CHAPTER 5 Lipid Metabolism 93 Lipases and Phospholipases 93 Cholesterol Release 96 � Oxidation of Fatty Acids 96 Energy Yield 98 Summary 99 Quiz 99
CHAPTER 6 Protein Structure 101 Introduction 101 General Characteristics of Proteins 102 Summary 122 Quiz 124
CHAPTER 7 Protein Assembly and Disassembly 127 Introduction 127 A Few Words about Oxidation-Reduction Potential 128
viii Biochemistry Demystifi ed
Acquisition of Nitrogen from the Environment 128
Essential versus Nonessential Amino Acids 130
Summary 146 Quiz 147
CHAPTER 8 Nucleic Acids and Nucleotides 151 Pyrimidines 152 Summary 171 Quiz 171
CHAPTER 9 Enzymes 175 Enzyme Naming Conventions 177 Turnover Number 183 Inhibitors 186 Irreversible and Reversible Inhibition 189 Regulation of Enzyme Activity 189 Coenzymes and Cofactors 190 Isozymes 193 Summary 194 Quiz 194
CHAPTER 10 Glycolysis 197 Introduction 198 The Preparatory Phase 199 The Pay-Off Phase of Glycolysis 202 Hexokinase Regulation 205 Phosphofructokinase Regulation 207 Pyruvate Kinase Regulation 207 More on the Liver 211 Ethanol Fermentation 212 Other Sugars in Glycolysis 212 Glycolysis and Cancer 214 Summary 217 Quiz 217
CHAPTER 11 The Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation 221
The Citric Acid Cycle 222 The Electron Transport Chain and
Protein Complexes 232 ATP Synthesis 235 Summary 237 Quiz 237
CHAPTER 12 Control of Chemical Processes—S