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  • Biochemistry Demystifi ed

  • Demystified Series

    Accounting Demystified Advanced Calculus Demystified Advanced Physics Demystified Advanced Statistics Demystified Algebra Demystified Alternative Energy Demystified Anatomy Demystified 2.0 Demystified Astronomy Demystified Audio Demystified Biochemistry Demystified Biology Demystified Biotechnology Demystified Business Calculus Demystified Business Math Demystified Business Statistics Demystified C++ Demystified Calculus Demystified Chemistry Demystified Circuit Analysis Demystified College Algebra Demystified Corporate Finance Demystified Databases Demystified Data Structures Demystified Diabetes Demystified Differential Equations Demystified Digital Electronics Demystified Earth Science Demystified Electricity Demystified Electronics Demystified Engineering Statistics Demystified Environmental Science Demystified Everyday Math Demystified Fertility Demystified Financial Planning Demystified Forensics Demystified French Demystified Genetics Demystified Geometry Demystified German Demystified Global Warming and Climate Change Demystified Hedge Funds Demystified Home Networking Demystified Investing Demystified Italian Demystified Java Demystified JavaScript Demystified Lean Six Sigma Demystified

    Linear Algebra Demystified Macroeconomics Demystified Management Accounting Demystified Math Proofs Demystified Math Word Problems Demystified MATLAB® Demystified Medical Billing and Coding Demystified Medical-Surgical Nursing Demystified Medical Terminology Demystified Meteorology Demystified Microbiology Demystified Microeconomics Demystified Nanotechnology Demystified Nurse Management Demystified OOP Demystified Options Demystified Organic Chemistry Demystified Personal Computing Demystified Pharmacology Demystified Physics Demystified Physiology Demystified Pre-Algebra Demystified Precalculus Demystified Probability Demystified Project Management Demystified Psychology Demystified Quality Management Demystified Quantum Field Theory Demystified Quantum Mechanics Demystified Real Estate Math Demystified Relativity Demystified Robotics Demystified Sales Management Demystified Signals and Systems Demystified Six Sigma Demystified Spanish Demystified sql Demystified Statics and Dynamics Demystified Statistics Demystified Technical Analysis Demystified Technical Math Demystified Trigonometry Demystified uml Demystified Visual Basic 2005 Demystified Visual C# 2005 Demystified Vitamins and Minerals Demystified XML Demystified

  • Biochemistry Demystifi ed

    Sharon Walker David McMahon

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  • Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.


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    This is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (“McGraw-Hill”) and its licensors reserve all rights in and to the work. Use of this work is subject to these terms. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976 and the right to store and retrieve one copy of the work, you may not decompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, reproduce, modify, create derivative works based upon, transmit, distribute, disseminate, sell, publish or sublicense the work or any part of it without McGraw-Hill’s prior consent. You may use the work for your own noncommercial and personal use; any other use of the work is strictly prohibited. Your right to use the work may be terminated if you fail to comply with these terms.

    THE WORK IS PROVIDED “AS IS.” McGRAW-HILL AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUDING ANY INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTH- ERWISE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. McGraw-Hill and its licensors do not warrant or guarantee that the functions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted or error free. Neither McGraw-Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom. McGraw-Hill has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work. Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill and/or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise.

    DOI: 10.1036/0071495991

  • This book is dedicated to our gang: Brandy, Kelpie, Goose, Henry, Red Cloud, Serenity, Sirius, Wendy, and Wishes


    SHARON WALKER, PH.D., is a Diplomat of the American Board of Toxicology (DABT) and has done extensive research in various areas of biomedicine. She has taught graduate courses in immunology, epidemiology, cell biology, and statistics. Dr. Walker is the author of Biotechnology Demystified.

    DAVID MCMAHON holds advanced degrees in physics and mathematics, and works as a researcher at a national laboratory. He has engaged in a wide variety of areas including fusion energy research and quantum information science. David has an interest in the biological sciences and participated for several years in research on the role of neurotransmitters in attention deficit disorder.

    Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.


    Preface xiii

    CHAPTER 1 The Chemistry of Biomolecules 1 Review of Basic Chemical Concepts 1 Forces That Hold Atoms and Molecules Together 2 Forces That Drive Reactions 8 The Unique Measurements of Hydrogen Ion

    Concentration—pH 18 The Unique Properties of the Carbon Atom 20 The Importance of Molecular

    Arrangement—Stereochemistry 23 Summary 26 Quiz 29

    CHAPTER 2 Cell Structures and Cell Division 31 Introduction 31 Cell Theory 32 The Three Domains of Life 32 Cell Containment 35 Introduction to Cell Organelles 38 Summary 47 Quiz 49

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  • CHAPTER 3 Carbohydrates 53 Monosaccharide 54 Reducing and Nonreducing Sugars 63 Derivatives of Carbohydrates 63 Glycosidic Bond and Disaccharides 65 Polysaccharides 68 Glycoconjugates 70 Summary 71 Quiz 71

    CHAPTER 4 Lipids 75 Fatty Acids 76 Triglycerides 80 Sphingolipids 81 Nonsaponifi able Lipids 82 Cholesterol 84 An Overview of the Cell Membrane 85 Summary 89 Quiz 89

    CHAPTER 5 Lipid Metabolism 93 Lipases and Phospholipases 93 Cholesterol Release 96 � Oxidation of Fatty Acids 96 Energy Yield 98 Summary 99 Quiz 99

    CHAPTER 6 Protein Structure 101 Introduction 101 General Characteristics of Proteins 102 Summary 122 Quiz 124

    CHAPTER 7 Protein Assembly and Disassembly 127 Introduction 127 A Few Words about Oxidation-Reduction Potential 128

    viii Biochemistry Demystifi ed

  • Acquisition of Nitrogen from the Environment 128

    Essential versus Nonessential Amino Acids 130

    Summary 146 Quiz 147

    CHAPTER 8 Nucleic Acids and Nucleotides 151 Pyrimidines 152 Summary 171 Quiz 171

    CHAPTER 9 Enzymes 175 Enzyme Naming Conventions 177 Turnover Number 183 Inhibitors 186 Irreversible and Reversible Inhibition 189 Regulation of Enzyme Activity 189 Coenzymes and Cofactors 190 Isozymes 193 Summary 194 Quiz 194

    CHAPTER 10 Glycolysis 197 Introduction 198 The Preparatory Phase 199 The Pay-Off Phase of Glycolysis 202 Hexokinase Regulation 205 Phosphofructokinase Regulation 207 Pyruvate Kinase Regulation 207 More on the Liver 211 Ethanol Fermentation 212 Other Sugars in Glycolysis 212 Glycolysis and Cancer 214 Summary 217 Quiz 217

    Contents ix

  • CHAPTER 11 The Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation 221

    The Citric Acid Cycle 222 The Electron Transport Chain and

    Protein Complexes 232 ATP Synthesis 235 Summary 237 Quiz 237

    CHAPTER 12 Control of Chemical Processes—S