BIOCHEMISTRY (Ch. 5) Organic molecules Organic molecules Carbon based moleculesCarbon based...

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Transcript of BIOCHEMISTRY (Ch. 5) Organic molecules Organic molecules Carbon based moleculesCarbon based...

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  • BIOCHEMISTRY (Ch. 5) Organic molecules Organic molecules Carbon based moleculesCarbon based molecules Inorganic molecules Inorganic molecules Non-carbon based moleculesNon-carbon based molecules
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  • Organic or Inorganic? O 2 O 2 NH 3 NH 3 C 6 H 12 O 6 C 6 H 12 O 6 CH 3 CH 3
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  • 4 categories of organic materials: Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Lipids Lipids Proteins Proteins Nucleic Acids Nucleic Acids
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  • Carbon Compounds Why is carbon so common in living things? Why is carbon so common in living things? Carbon is a good bonder!! Carbon is a good bonder!!
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  • Monomers and Polymers Monomers 1 molecular units Monomers 1 molecular units Polymers monomers linked together into a long chain Polymers monomers linked together into a long chain
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  • Building Polymers Dehydration Synthesis Dehydration Synthesis Definition:Definition:
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  • Breaking Polymers Hydrolysis Hydrolysis Definition:Definition:
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  • Evaluate 1. Explain the connection between a monomer and a polymer. What molecule is released during the construction of a polymer? What is this reaction called?
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  • 1) Carbohydrates Sugars C,H,O Store energy Hydrophilic (water-loving)
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  • Monosaccharides Monomer of carbs (1 sugar molecule) simple sugars glucose, fructose, galactose
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  • Disaccharides Double sugars Formed by dehydration synthesis Sucrose Lactose Maltose
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  • Polysaccharides Giant polymers of linked monosaccharides Giant polymers Starch (plants) Glycogen (animals) Cellulose (fiber)
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  • 2) Lipids Hydrophobic (water-fearing) C,H,O Store energy Examples: Fats Oils Waxes Steroids
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  • Chemistry of Fats Composed of: 3 fatty acids 1 glycerol molecule
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  • saturated vs. unsaturated
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  • Lets Review Carbs & Lipids What is the difference between a monosaccharide and a disaccharide? Give an example of each. How do animals store excess glucose molecules? What property do lipids share? What are the parts of a fat molecule? What does the term unsaturated fat on a food label mean?
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  • 3) Proteins
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  • Proteins -Composed of C, H, O, N, and sometimes S -monomers are amino acids
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  • Structure of Amino Acid 20 different amino acids Each contain: Amino group (NH 2 ) Carboxyl group (COOH) Side group (R group)
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  • Polypeptide Amino acids link together to make a polypeptide (i.e. a protein) * see p. 101 Peptide bond- Peptide bond Covalent bond between two amino acids Formed by dehydration synthesis See animation
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  • Peptide bond
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  • Protein Shape Yarn & Sweater example What influences protein shape? Sequence of amino acids Surrounding environment Denaturation- Protein unravels & loses shape
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  • Enzymes- a type of protein Speed up chemical reactions (catalysts) i.e. Amylase (saliva)
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  • Enzymes lower activation energy Activation Energy-
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  • Substrate is what is changed Substrate Enzyme binds to substrate at the active site How Enzymes Work
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  • Animation Animation