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Understanding MapInfo: A Structured GuideIan Johnson 1996. Archaeology (P&H), University of Sydney

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Biskowski, M. 1994 GIS and the study of grinding tools in the Teotihuacan Valley, Mexico. In:Johnson, I. (ed) Methods in the Mountains: Proceedings of UISPP Commission IVMeeting, Mount Victoria, August 1993. Sydney University Archaeological MethodsSeries 2. Sydney: Prehistoric & Historical Archaeology, University of Sydney.

Burrough, P.A. 1986 Principles of Geographic Information Systems for Land ResourcesAssessment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Canters, F. & Declier, H. 1989 The World in Perspective: a directory of world map projections.London: George Wiley.

Dana, P.H. 1995 Geodetic Datum Overview. Dept. of Geography, University of Texas at Austin.Internet:

Dana, P.H. 1995 Coordinate Systems Overview. Dept. of Geography, University of Texas atAustin. Internet:

Dana, P.H. 1995 Map Projections. Dept. of Geography, University of Texas at Austin.Internet:

Fletcher, M. & Lock, G.R. 1992. Digging Numbers: elementary statistics for archaeologists.Oxford Univ. Committee for Archaeology Monograph 33: Oxford.

Gaffney, V. & Stancic, Z. 1991 GIS approaches to regional analysis: A case study of the islandof Hvar. Ljubljana: Znanstveni institut Filozofske fakultete.

Goodchild, M.F. and Gopal, S. (eds) 1989 Accuracy of Spatial Databases. Bristol,Pennsylvania: Taylor and Francis.

Johnson, I. 1976 Contribution méthodologique à l'étude de la répartition des vestiges dans desniveaux archéologiques. DES Thesis, Université de Bordeaux, France.

Johnson, I. 1984 Cell frequency recording and analysis of artefact distributions. In Hietala, H.J.(ed) Intrasite Spatial Analysis in Archaeology. New Directions in Archaeology.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Johnson, I. 1995 Mapping Archaeological Data: A Structured Introduction to MapInfo. SydneyUniversity Archaeological Methods Series 3. Sydney: Prehistoric & HistoricalArchaeology, University of Sydney.

Johnson, I. 1996a MapInfo in Archaeological Research. In Daniel, L., Loree, P. & Whitener, A.(in prep.) Inside MapInfo. Santa Fe: High Mountain Press.

Johnson, I. 1996b The Application of MapInfo in Archaeology. (extended version of 1996a)Internet: or (Files:,,






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Knapp, A.B. & Johnson, I. 1994 Quantifying survey data from Cyprus: the use of aerialphotographs for field recording and GIS input. In: Johnson, I. (ed) Methods in theMountains: Proceedings of UISPP Commission IV Meeting, Mount Victoria, August1993. Sydney University Archaeological Methods Series 2. Sydney: Prehistoric &Historical Archaeology, University of Sydney.

Maguire, D.J., Goodchild, M.F. & Rhind, D.W. (eds) 1991 Geographical Information Systems:Principles and Applications. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

MapInfo Inc. 1995 MapInfo Professional User's Guide (Version 4). Troy, NY: MapInfo Inc.

MapInfo Inc. 1995 MapInfo Professional Reference (Version 4). Troy, NY: MapInfo Inc.

Monmonier, M.S. 1991 How to Lie with Maps. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Paris, J. 1996 MapInfo Internal Precision: potentials, practices and shortcomings. Internet:ftp://gisnet.csn/mapinfo/ (RTF format, zipped)

Petrie, L., Johnson, I., Cullen, B. & Kvamme, K. (eds) 1995 GIS in Archaeology: An AnnotatedBibliography. Sydney University Archaeological Methods Series 1. Sydney: Prehistoric &Historical Archaeology, University of Sydney.

Shennan, S.J. 1988 Quantifying Archaeology Edinburgh University Press: Edinburgh.

Snyder , J.P. 1987 Map Projections - A Working Manual. Washington: U.S. Geological SurveyProfessional Paper 1395.

Snyder, J.P. & Voxland, P.M. 1989 An Album of Map Projections. Washington: U.S.Geological Survey Professional Paper 1453.

Star, J. & Estes, J. 1990 Geographic Information Systems: An Introduction. Englewood Cliffs,NJ: Prentice Hall.

Tomlin, C.D. 1991 Geographic Information Systems and Cartographic Modelling. EnglewoodCliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Tufte, E.R. 1983 The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Cheshire, Connecticut:Graphics Press.

Tufte, E.R. 1990 Envisioning Information. Cheshire, Connecticut: Graphics Press.






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Appendix I





IUnderstanding MapInfo: A Structured Guide

Ian Johnson 1996. Archaeology (P&H), University of Sydney

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Note: Mention of companies or software in this list is simply for information. It in no wayindicates endorsement of the product or provider. In some cases we have not even seen thesoftware, let alone used it.

Archaeological Computing Laboratory (ACL), University of Sydney

Archaeology (P & H), University of Sydney NSW 2006, AustraliaTel: +61 (2) 351 3142. Fax: +61 (2) 351 4889E-Mail: [email protected]:// (subdirectories: software, texts)

GIS and mapping consultancy services; GPS survey; GIS, mapping and databasetraining workshops. Conversion utilities for transferring raster and vector databetween systems (most software developed by the ACL is supplied free of charge: acontribution is requested if you find it useful).

Able Software

5 Appletree Lane, Lexington, MA 02173, USATel: +1 (617) 862-2804 Fax: +1 (617) 862-2640EMail: [email protected] page:

R2V Vector to Raster Conversion software

Avenza Software Inc.

3385 Harvester Road, Burlington, Ontario L7N 3N2, CanadaTel: +1 (905) 639-3330 Fax: +1 (905) 639-4201Web page:

MAPublisher: add-on for Adobe Illustrator to read MapInfo MIF/MID, Arc/InfoGenerate and USGS DLG file formats with all attributes intact.

Bureau of Land Management (BLM)

Large number of GIS utilities and source code

Digital Chart of the World

Defense Mapping Agency, Plans and Requirements Directorate8613, Lee Highway, Fairfax VA 22031-2137, USA.In Australia: AUSLIG, Canberra.





Appendix I: Information Sources

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ERSIS Australia

PO Box 3055, South Brisbane Qld 4101, Australia.Tel: +61 (7) 844 7744. Fax: +61 (7) 844 2400.E-Mail: [email protected]

GIS software development, including 3D Mapper and digitising tools; sales, trainingand consultancy.

Federal Geographic Data Committee Metadata standards (Overview) (An implementation of the metadata standard) (A graphical walk-through of the standard) (Review of metadata resources).


1401 Walnut Street, Suite C.Boulder CO 80302, USA.Tel: +1 (303) 786-9961 BBS: +1 (303) 447-0927Email: [email protected] page:

MapInfo mailing list and FTP site, GIS and MapInfo sales and consulting.GIS World 1996 'Best Desktop Mapping Site'Maintained by Bill Thoen ([email protected])

GIS World Inc.

155 E. Boardwalk Drive, Suite 250, Fort Collins, CO 80525, USATel: +1 (970) 223-4848 Fax: +1 (970) 223-5700Email: [email protected] page:

Publishers of GIS World Magazine and other GIS related publications.

GIS World Best of the Net 1996

GIS World, January 1996. pp. 42-47 'GIS World's Best of the Net 1996'Web version:

GNK Programming Inc.

6, Kingsdale Avenue, North York, Ontario M2N 3W1, CanadaTel: +1 (416) 223 1077 Fax: +1 (416) 223 7214Web page: [email protected] or [email protected]

MapInfo-related applications and data including MakePolygon polyline to polygonconverter and Digital Chart of the World in MapInfo format (North America)





Appendix I: Information Sources

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Hazchem Consulting

Level 1, 20 Guildford Lane, Melbourne Vic 3000, AustraliaTel: +61 (3) 9642 5650 Mobile: +61 (419) 352 642

Direct 4-colour separation printing from within MapInfo

Idrisi Project

Clark University, Graduate School of Geography950, Main Street, Worcester MA 01610, USATel: +1 508 793 7526. Fax: +1 508 793 8842E-mail: [email protected]


Michel Passoun ([email protected])Numérise polygon digitising and construction tools.Not marketed. Documentation in French.

Integrated Mapping

Christchurch, New ZealandTel: +64 (3) 366-5234 Fax: +64 (3) 365-6508Email [email protected]: John McCombs ([email protected])Web page:

Software development, sales, training and support. Maintains MapInfo FAQ and NZ-GIS mailing list.

MapInfo Corporation

One Global View, Troy, New York 12180-8399, USA.Tel: +1 (518) 285 6000. Fax: +1 (518) 285 6060.E-Mail: [email protected] Support: [email protected] enquiries: [email protected] page:

The MapTools Company

Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USATel: +1 (423) 483-1900Web page: Robert Edwards ([email protected])

Raster transformation, image association, proximal polygonsand MapBasic development toolkits

NMEA-0183 & GPS Info

GarMap (downloads from Garmin GPS to MIF. Under development)Contact: M.W. Holdernesse ([email protected])





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Northwood Geosciences

265, Carling Avenue, Suite 215, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 2E1, CanadaWeb page: [email protected] or [email protected]

Vertical Mapper (3D and Raster GIS add-on for MapInfo)

Software Factory International Ltd

1223, Peoples Ave, Troy, NY 12180Tel: +1 (518) 276-2077 Fax: +1 (518) 276-6380Contact: Andrew Dressel ([email protected])Web page:

Contract GIS programming services and MapBasic utilities.

United States Geological Survey

Web page:

University of Buffalo Geography Home Page

Virtual Tablet Interface

Digitiser Technology Company, 16541, Redmond Way Suite 195CRedmond WA 98052, USATel: +1 (206) 868 3246


Humblesknowe Cottage, Ramoyle, Dunblane, Perthshire FK15 0BA, Scotland.Kevin Woolley ([email protected])Web page:

Landscape Explorer and Visual Explorer: 3D landscape modelling and visualisation


FTP site address

Index file: /Mapinfo/00-index.txt

Frequently asked questions: /Mapinfo/ (Windows Help file)

Monthly digests: /Mapinfo/Digest/





Appendix I: Information Sources

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To subscribe to mailing lists, send a message to the list server addres, NOT the mailing listitself (unless you want to be embarassed by thousands of people receiving your message ...)

The message is normally: SUBSCRIBE listnamefor example: SUBSCRIBE MAPINFO-L

If you have trouble disconnecting from a list, send the message HELP listname to the list serveraddress to get instructions. Difficulties often arise because you have changed email addresssince subscribing, in which case you need to include your old email address to unsubscribe, asoutlined in the help information which you will recieve.

MapInfo-L list

Subscription requests [email protected]& other commands

Messages to be distributed [email protected]

GIS-L List

Beware: High-volume list

Subscription requests [email protected]& other commands

Messages to be distributed [email protected]

GRASS User Group List

Subscription requests [email protected]& other commands

Messages to be distributed [email protected]

Idrisi-L List

Subscription requests [email protected] other commands Send message: SUBSCRIBE IDRISI-L

Messages to be distributed [email protected]


comp.infosystems.gis - GIS Topics

sci.geo.geology - Geology Topics

sci.geo.meteorology - Meteorology Topics





Appendix I: Information Sources

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Appendix II

Handlingraster data

with MapInfo




IIUnderstanding MapInfo: A Structured Guide

Ian Johnson 1996. Archaeology (P&H), University of Sydney

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Desktop mapping and raster data

Vector mapping systems such as MapInfo or ArcView provide a convenient intuitive front-endto GIS data, but they do not (yet ...) provide the analytical capabilities typical of a full GIS.This is particularly apparent when one is faced with manipulating or creating continuouslyvarying quantities such as elevation or cost surfaces, or with third-party data provided in araster format.

Many researchers who have adopted MapInfo as a modestly priced data management andmapping tool, turn to Idrisi or Grass for their extensive analytical capabilities and low cost.While ArcView users are perhaps more likely to be associated with an Arc/Info establishment,the balance is changing as ArcView positions itself to challenge MapInfo in the broaderconsumer market. Desktop mapping users are therefore quite likely to find themselves wantingto integrate new (raster) data back into their vector system.

There are three obvious approaches to this issue:

1. Treat the data as an image

The simplest approach is to convert the raster data to a standard image format such as PCX orTIF and load it as a backdrop in the vector system. This may be fine for air photos or satelliteimages, but it allows little or no further manipulation or analysis.

2. Raster to vector conversion

A second approach is to convert the raster data to vector data using raster-to-vector conversionsoftware or manual tracing. The latter is labour intensive and non-replicable; good raster-to-vector software is not cheap and still requires manual intervention; and in any case,continuously varying quantities such as elevation or cost surfaces cannot be satisfactorilyconverted to a line or polygon format (although TIN models are starting to make theirappearance in the desktop mapping world).

3. Cells as vector objects

The approach with which we are concerned here, is to represent the individual cells of the rasterdata as a grid of square vector objects to which the raster data values are attached as attributes.This is the approach which would typically be used where artefact counts and contextual datahave been recorded for a grid of sample units (e.g. Biskowski 1994), but it can just as well beused where the tabular data are derived from a raster GIS.

One advantage of this approach is that a single vector map layer can hold data from severalraster data layers, as the values from each layer are stored as separate fields in the attribute data(figure on next page). The mapping system's data management capabilities can then be used toselect the field(s) and/or records (cells) required. Unused cells resulting from an irregularlyshaped or non-contiguous study area, can also be eliminated (temporarily or permanently) fromthe data.





Appendix II: Handling Raster Data with MapInfo

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A second advantages of this method of transferring and storing raster data is that there is no lossof information, and the information transferred is fully accessible to the data management,spatial analysis and visual presentation capabilities of the vector system. What you can do withit will, of course, depend on those capabilities, and will generally be much more limited on theanalytical side than was possible with the raster GIS.

Elevation Slope Veg. Cover Cost

Elev Slope Veg Cost

1 2 3

4 5 6

7 8 9




Vector map objectsTabular (attribute) data

Raster data layers

1 2 3

4 5 6

7 8 9



The software as currently implemented provides a link between Idrisi and any desktop mappingprogram capable of storing attribute data in a DBF file. A GRASS version is also planned. Thesoftware, a detailed description of the procedures and more examples are available as zip fileson the Sydney University Archaeological Computing Laboratory FTP site (see the SUACLsoftware home page, address in Appendix I) for links.

A grid cell data layer is created using the program GRIDMAKE (or any other polygon-basedgrid generation program) and saved in DBase DBF format.1 The layer must correspond inorigin and grid cell size, but not necessarily in extent, with the raster data layers to be imported.

The program CELLVECT reads Idrisi IMG files and inserts the cell values into thecorresponding fields in the DBF file of grid cell attribute data. The program can be rerun toupdate raster data which has been modified. At present the process is one-way, Idrisi to DBF.Approximate speed of update is 5,000 - 25,000 cells/minute (486DX25 - Pentium 90).





1 GRIDMAKE automatically creates two fields giving the row and column position of each cell, and a series of fields forupdating with data from raster layers. If using another program, these fields will need to be added.

Appendix II: Handling Raster Data with MapInfo

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Using vector cell data

Some examples of the use of vector cell objects with attached attribute data derived from rasterdata layers include:

• Set attribute data values for vector objects in other layers (e.g. set elevation, cost valueor soil type for sampling units or archaeological sites) using a spatial join (e.g. a point-within-polygon operation - see Johnson 1995: 96, 106-112). The vector object picks up thevalue for the desired quantity from the attribute data value attached to the cell whichcontains it, or an aggregate value (e.g. average or sum of values) for all the cells which itcontains or intersects;

• Selection of cells with particular characteristics. The selection can be based on a simpledatabase query applied to the attribute data values of the cell (e.g. southerly aspect oralluvial soils) or on its spatial location within regions defined by other data layers (e.g.within surveyed area or 200m distance band of streams) using an SQL selection with aspatial join;

• Plot selected cells, with or without thematic shading based on attribute data values, e.g.slope classes or cost bands:

• Obtain statistical information for selected cells e.g. distribution of elevation for surveyedcells against distribution of elevation for all cells. This can be achieved inelegantly inMapInfo using the thematic mapping function and manually copying the range counts fromthe legend;

• Examine cell-by-cell interaction between two or more fields (e.g. are high artefactdensities associated with particular forms of land use or exposure conditions) throughcrosstabulation or graphical representation. It may be advantageous to convert vector datainto additional attribute fields in the cell layer (see below) to allow the use of aspreadsheet, graphics or statistics package which can be applied directly to the attributedata;




II • Convert vector data layers, e.g. soil type, geology or site locations, into cell attribute dataand store them as fields in the cell data layer. The translation from the vector objects to

Appendix II: Handling Raster Data with MapInfo

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the data value for a particular cell is determined by a spatial join (e.g. point-within-polygon or polygon-intersects-polygon) and may involve aggregation (e.g. counting ofsites within each cell). This allows joint non-spatial analysis of the raster and vector datausing a spreadsheet, statistics or graphing package. It can also be used as a method ofgenerating cell-based data for export to spatial analysis or graphics programs requiringdata in this form.

Selected cells can also be combined into larger vector polygon objects (whose outlines maythen be smoothed to provide a better visual appearance) for faster plotting speed (see below).


Will the creation of tens of thousands of vector objects cause your mapping system to die anignoble death (or you to grow old while waiting for it)? Indicative times on a 486SX25 laptopfor a 100 x 100 cell grid are 90 seconds to update a data field from a raster layer and 100seconds for thematic shading of the whole grid. These times rise to around 25 minutes for a400x400 grid. Times for 1,000 point-within-polygon joins are around 36 seconds for a 100x100grid and 2 minutes for a 400x400 grid. A Pentium 90 is approximately 5 times as fast.

While these speeds are quite acceptable for small grids (up to about 50,000 cells), performanceis clearly inadequate for larger grids. That is not the end of the road, however, because cellswith identical values for a particular field can be grouped into larger units. In MapInfo theappropriate function is Table>Combine Objects using Column. For category data (such asgeological or vegetation classes, slope class or elevation band) you end up with the samenumber of map objects as there are classes - probably no more than 100, and often less than 10.Once grouped, map display and most analytical operations are extremely fast.

Elevation Slope Aspect Geology






Although continuous data (such as elevation, slope and aspect) can be reduced in this way,fields with a large number of potential values or poor spatial autocorrelation may still formlarge numbers of very small units. One way to ensure a small number of polygons aftergrouping is to divide continuous values up into classes using an expression such asRound(Elevation,5). In this way a grid of a few hundred thousand objects (cells) can typicallybe reduced to a few tens or hundreds of objects. MapInfo handles this number of objects rapidlywith no problems.





Appendix II: Handling Raster Data with MapInfo

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While it makes sense to aggregate the grouping variable for cells which have been combined(since they will have the same value on this variable,2 other variables will generally beuncorrelated or poorly correlated, so it is not possible to group the cells and create one layerwith all the data attached (as was the case for the original cells layer). One pays for speed witha loss of generality. Instead, one has to create separate layers (with different groupings) for eachfield - elevation, slope, aspect, geology, vegetation etc. Additional fields might be aggregatedfor inclusion in these new layers if aggregation makes sense, but this is likely to be rare.





2 If the grouping variable is a continuous variable which has been rounded into classes, one would most probablyaggregate by averaging the original (continuous) variable.

Appendix II: Handling Raster Data with MapInfo

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Appendix III

SQL analysis ofpoint distributions:

some examples




IIIUnderstanding MapInfo: A Structured Guide

Ian Johnson 1996. Archaeology (P&H), University of Sydney

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SQL instructions beyond those required for the very simplest of retrievals can be quite difficultto work out. The aim of this appendix is therefore to give some examples of SQL instructionsapplied to point distributions, which can be adapted to produce specific commonly requiredresults. It is not even remotely intended as a guide to the spatial analysis of point distributions.

The examples are presented as the SQL instruction created by MapInfo when you fill in theSQL Select dialogue box - the SQL instruction is written into the MapBasic window if this isenabled (using Options>Show MapBasic Window). SQL instructions can also be typed intothe MapBasic window or copied from another program (with cut and paste) and run by placingthe cursor on the line or highlighting multiple lines and hitting Enter. Use of the KGM utilities,available from the GISNet MapInfo FTP site (Appendix I) allows saving and loading of namedSQL queries.

Note: capitalisation and new lines are ignored by MapBasic; multiple spaces are treated assingle spaces. Italics indicate items to be replaced with an appropriate name. In these examples,the directory D:/EXAMPLES has been used in all cases - replace with an appropriate directoryname or ommit if in the default path.

To browse the results of an SQL selection, use the following MapBasic instruction:

Browse * from Selection

(Selection is the current selection, which implies that you have not entered a name under IntoTable - enter the apppropiate table name to browse a different table).

Saving a table

To save a temporary table tablename as a permanent table on disk:

Commit Table tablename As "D:\Examples\"Type Native Charset "WindowsLatin1"

Type Native indicates a MapInfo format data file - use Type DBF for a DBase format file.WindowsLatin1 is the normal Windows character set (alternatives include Macintosh and non-English character sets). These are default values which will be used if Type and Charset areommitted.





Appendix III: SQL Analysis of Point Distributions - Some Examples

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MapInfo can analyse a distribution of point objects (such as sites, animal sightings, samplinglocations, drill holes, retail outlets or artefacts) to work out distance to nearest neighbour,number of points within a given radius, weighted distances etc.

To carry out these analyses:

1. You will need two layers. If the analysis is to be done between points recorded in asingle layer (e.g. to work out the spacing of plants in a sample plot), you will first needto make a copy of the layer using File>Save Copy As. We will assume that the twolayers are called Centres and OthPoint:

2. You will require a dummy field (JoinField in the following examples) in both layers, setto a constant value (e.g. 0). The value should be the same in both layers. This field isused to join all points in the Centres layer with all points in the OthPoint layer;

3. To calculate a count of neighbours, minimum distance or nearest neighbour for aduplicated layer, you will also require a field in both layers (RecNo in the followingexamples) which has a unique value for each record, such as a site number or observationID. If no unique-value field exists, you can add a record-number field(Table>Maintenance>Table Structure) and set its value to the record number usingTable>Update Column and setting the value to RowID.

Distance to nearest neighbour

Using the tables as specified above:

Select Centres.Recno,Min(Distance(CentroidX(Centres.obj),CentroidY(Centres.obj),CentroidX(OthPoint.obj), CentroidY(OthPoint.obj),"km"))"NN Distance in km"

From Centres, OthPointWhere Centres.JoinField = OthPoint.JoinField

and Centres.Recno<>OthPoint.RecnoGroup by Centres.RecnoInto Selection

The first part of the Where clause Centres.JoinField=OthPoint.JoinField joins every recordin the Centres table with every record in the OthPoint table. If there are 1,000 points in eachtable, this produces 1,000,000 records.

The Group By clause groups these records into 1,000 groups corresponding with each of the1,000 records in the Centres table.

The Distance function calculates the distance between the map objects for each of the1,000,000 pairs of records joined.

The Min function returns the minimum value of the distance between the Centres map objectand the OthPoints map objects for each of the 1,000 groups.





Appendix III: SQL Analysis of Point Distributions - Some Examples

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The second part of the Where clause, Centres.Recno<>OthPoint.Recno eliminates the recordrepresenting the join of a point with itself - if they were left in, the minimum distance for eachgroup would always be zero3

Select Centres.Recno outputs the record number corresponding with the minimum distancecalculated. "NN Distance in km" simply labels this column appropriately.

Neighbours within a given distance

Using the tables as specified under inter-point distances heading:

Select Centres.Recno, Count(*)"Points within 1km"From Centres, OthPointWhere Centres.JoinField = OthPoint.JoinField and

Centres.Recno<>OthPoint.Recno andDistance(CentroidX(Centres.obj),CentroidY(Centres.obj),CentroidX(OthPoint.obj), CentroidY(OthPoint.obj),"km")<1

Group by Centres.RecnoInto Selection

The first part of the Where clause Centres.JoinField=OthPoint.JoinField joins every recordin the Centres table with every record in the OthPoint table. If there are 1,000 points in eachtable, this produces 1,000,000 records.

The second part of the Where clause, Centres.Recno<>OthPoint.Recno eliminates the recordrepresenting the join of a point with itself - if they were left in, the count for each group wouldbe 1 greater than the number of neighbours within the threshold distance. UnfortunatelyMapInfo does not allow us to simply subtract 1 from Count(*) to allow for each point includingitself in the calculation. If the Centres table and the OthPoint tables are different sets of objects(e.g. distribution centres and retail outlets) omit this part of the Where clause.

The Distance function calculates the distance between the map objects for each of the1,000,000 pairs of records joined and <1 eliminates any distances exceeding the threshold (1kmin this case).

The Group By clause groups these records into 1,000 groups corresponding with each of the1,000 records in the Centres table.

Select Centres.Recno outputs the record number corresponding with the count calculated.Count(*) calculates the number of records selected (i.e. the number of OthPoint points withinthe threshold distance of the point in the Centres table). "Points within 1km" simply labelsthis column appropriately.

Analysis speed

The analysis above takes 20 - 30 seconds on a Pentium 90 for around 300 points in each table.Time is roughly proportional to the product of the number of points in the two tables, i.e.approximately time = (n x m) / 200,000 minutes.





3 In theory one could use Centre.RowID<>Points.RowID, but this is not evaluated correctly in the join.

Appendix III: SQL Analysis of Point Distributions - Some Examples

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Weighted distance to neighbours

Proceed as for count of neighbours within a given distance, but replace Count(*) with anexpression such as:

Sum(1-(Distance(CentroidX(Centres.obj),CentroidY(Centres.obj),CentroidX(OthPoint.obj), CentroidY(OthPoint.obj),"km"))

This simple formula is a linear fall-off in contribution with distance out to the neighbourhoodthreshold (1km in this case). Contributions are Summed for all points lying within the thresholddistance.

A wide variety of expressions can be used in this case to represent different models of pointassociation. If you use a formula such as a Log function or a division by distance, beware ofvalues which cannot be evaluated (such as the log of a negative number or division by a zerodistance if two points occur at the same location).


These concepts can be extended to carry out Local Density Analysis (Johnson 1976, 1984) ofpoint distributions. A single table containing the point distributions is duplicated withFile>Save Copy As to form the basis for the analysis. The file should include a dummy joinfield (JoinField), a record number field (RecNo) and a point type identifying field (Type). Thereare three steps in the analysis.

1. To calculate the observed neighbour counts for each centre-neighbour object typecombination:

Select Centres.ObjType"Centre Type",OthPoint.ObjType"Neighbour Type",Count(*)"Observed Neighbour Count"

From Centres, OthPointWhere Centres.JoinField = OthPoint.JoinField and

Centres.Recno<>OthPoint.Recno andDistance(CentroidX(Centres.obj),CentroidY(Centres.obj),CentroidX(OthPoint.obj), CentroidY(OthPoint.obj),"km")<1

Group by Centres.ObjType, OthPoint.ObjTypeInto Observed

2. To calculate the expected neighbour counts for each centre-neighbour object typecombination:

Select Centres.ObjType"Centre Type",OthPoint.ObjType"Neighbour Type",Count(*)"Expected Neighbour Count"

From Centres, OthPointWhere Centres.JoinField = OthPoint.JoinField and

Centres.Recno<>OthPoint.RecnoGroup by Centres.ObjType, OthPoint.ObjTypeInto Expected





Appendix III: SQL Analysis of Point Distributions - Some Examples

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3. To calculate the Local Density Analysis association coefficients for each centre-neighbourobject type combination:

Select Observed.CentreType, Observed.NeighbourType,(Observed.ObservedCount/(Expected.ExpectedCount*k))

From Centres, OthPointWhere Observed.CentreType=Expected.CentreType and

Observed.NeighbourType=Expected.NeighbourTypeOrder by Observed.CentreType,Observed.NeighbourTypeInto LDAcoeff

Where: k = ππr2/A (r is the neighbourhood distance, A is the area of the study site). kcan be calculated manually before analysis begins, or can be entered as a formula withvalues of r and A substituted.

SQL statements for Local Density Analysis

The SQL statements for the Local Density Analysis, as outlined above, stripped of formatting,are as follows:

Select Centre.Type"CentreType",points.type"NeighbourType",count(*)"ObservedCount" from centre, points wherecentre.JoinField = points.JoinField andDistance(CentroidX(Centre.obj),CentroidY(Centre.obj), CentroidX(Points.obj),CentroidY(Points.obj),"km")<100 group by Centre.Type,Points.Type into Observed

Select Centre.Type"CentreType",Points.type"NeighbourType",count(*)"ExpectedCount" from Centre, Points whereCentre.JoinField = Points.JoinField Group by Centre.Type, Points.Type into Expected

Select Observed.CentreType,Observed.NeighbourType, Observed.ObservedCount,Expected.ExpectedCount,(Observed.ObservedCount/Expected.ExpectedCount) fromObserved, Expected where Observed.CentreType=Expected.CentreType andObserved.NeighbourType=Expected.NeighbourType Order byObserved.CentreType,Observed.NeighbourType into LDACoeff

Browse * From LDACoeff





Appendix III: SQL Analysis of Point Distributions - Some Examples

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Appendix IV

Modifying themenus and





IVUnderstanding MapInfo: A Structured Guide

Ian Johnson 1996. Archaeology (P&H), University of Sydney

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Menu and toolbar specifications

Menu and toolbar changes are made by editing the file MAPINFOW.MNU. Before tinkeringwith this file, make a copy of it with a different name in case you mess it up ...


• Any line in MAPINFOW.MNU starting with ' is simply there for explanation. Theselines can be changed or deleted at will;

• Precise attention to commas and quotes is essential;

• The following discussion is not intended to be comprehensive - you will need to readthe file and work out the detail with the following information as a guide.

Main menu bar

The menus created with the Create Menu instructions (see below) are displayed as pulldownmenus across the top of the screen with the Create Menu Bar instruction:

Create Menu Bar As "&File", "&Edit", "&Objects", "&Query", "&Table", "O&ptions", "WinSpecific", "&Window", "&Help"

The menus listed, and their order, determine which pulldown menus are shown and the order inwhich they appear. If you wanted, for example, to show only the File, Query, Help andwindow-specific menus (WinSpecific), to create a simplified system for retrieval only, thenyou would simply list these four entries below Create Menu Bar As.

Pulldown menus

Create Menu creates a pulldown menu and the entries within it. For example, the start of theFile menu creation reads as follows:

Create Menu "&File" ID 1 As "&New Table...\tCtrl+N/W^N/Mn/XCtrl+n" HelpMsg "Create a new table." calling 101, "&Open Table...\tCtrl+O/W^O/Mo/XCtrl+o" HelpMsg "Open one or more tables." calling 102,




IVetc ...




IVYou can customise most aspects of these menus, or create completely new menus. & precedesthe letter which is to be underlined (the speed key); \t introduces the control keys which willcarry out the function directly; HelpMsg introduces the help message which will display in thestatus bar at the bottom of the screen.

Appendix IV: Modifying the Menus and Toolbars

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At the end of each menu entry, calling xxx specifies that selecting this menu entry will performaction xxx. You have to use the appropriate code numbers from MAPINFOW.MNU (listedbelow), as you have no control over the range of actions available or their code number.


Submenus (such as the Table>Maintenance submenu) are created by specifying Create Menu"menuname" without an ID number before creating the parent menu, for example:

Create Menu "&Maintenance" As "&Table Structure..." etc.

and including the submenu in the parent menu in place of a normal menu entry, as follows:

"&Maintenance" As "Maintenance",

Special menu entries

Toggle menu items

Start menu entry with ! and separate alternatives with ^, for example:

"!Hide Le&gend Window^Show Le&gend Window"

Also applies to Hide/Show Statistics Window, MapBasic Window, Status Bar and Clip RegionOn/Off.


"(!" indicates a toggled menu item which shows a tick (�) to indicate when this mode is active.

Separator line

A separator line can be placed in a menu with the following instruction between menu entries:


Most recently used files


Displays a list of the most recently used files. Normally located near the bottom of the Filemenu.

Available windows





IVDisplays a list of available (open) windows. Normally located at the bottom of the Windowmenu.

Appendix IV: Modifying the Menus and Toolbars

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The instructions to create a button pad/toolbar are similar to those for a menu, for example:

Create ButtonPad "Tools" ID 3 As PushButton Icon 32 Calling 110 HelpMsg "Start a MapBasic application.\nRun MapBasic Program" ToggleButton Icon 33 Calling 608 HelpMsg "Display or hide the MapBasic window.\nShow/HideMapBasic Window"Separator ToolButton Icon 16 Calling 1711 HelpMsg "Place a symbol (point) on an editable map or activelayout.\nSymbol"FixedHideWidth 2

PushButton, ToggleButton and ToolButton describe the different types of button.PushButton represents a one-off action such as running a MapBasic program; ToggleButton isa mode which you switch on or off each time you click it, such as displaying a window orentering reshape mode; ToolButton activates a tool such as a selection or drawing tool - it willremain active until another tool is activated.

Icon gives the code number for the icon displayed on the screen. Calling gives the code for thefunction called when the button is clicked. These codes are listed below.

HelpMsg gives the help message which displays in the status window when you point at orclick the button, followed by the name of the button which is displayed as a "Tool Tip" if youpoint at the button but do not click it immediately. \n separates these two help texts.

Fixed anchors the toolbar across the top of the screen - if this keyword is ommitted, the toolbarwill be a floating box with the specified number of columns of icons. Hide and Show indicatewhether the toolbar should be displayed at startup

Separator draws a line between icons in the toolbar, separating them into groups. Use this tomake the toolbar more readable.








Appendix IV: Modifying the Menus and Toolbars

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MapInfo menu entry callingcodes (organised by default menus)

Refresh ODBC Table 417Raster submenu Adjust Image Styles 414 Modify Image Registration 413 Select Control Point from Map 1730

File menu (ID 1)

Table menu (ID 15)New Table 101Open Table 102

Update Column 405Close Table 103Append Rows to Table 411Save Table 105Geocode 407Save Copy As 106Create Points 408Close All 104Combine Objects using Column 406Open ODBC Table 116Import 401Open Workspace 108Export 402Save Workspace 109

Options menu (ID 5)Save Window As 609Revert Table 107Run MapBasic Program 110Page Setup 111

Line Style 501Print 112Region Style 502Send Mail submenuSymbol Style 503 Current Window 114Text Style 504 Workspace 115Toolbars 605Exit 113Hide/show Legend Window 606

Edit Menu (ID2)Hide/show Statistics Window 607Hide/show MapBasic Window 608Hide/show Status Bar 616Custom Colors 617Undo 201Preferences 208Cut 202

Window menu (ID 6)Copy 203Paste 204Clear/Del 205Clear Map Objects Only 206

New Browser Window 601Reshape 1601New Map Window 602New Row 702New Graph Window 603Get Info 207New Layout Window 604

Objects menu (ID 14)New Redistrict Window 615Redraw Window 610Tile Windows 611Cascade Windows 612Set Target 1610Arrange Icons 613Clear Target 1611

Help menu (ID 7)Combine 1605Split 1612Erase 1613Erase Outside 1614

MapInfo Help Topics 1203Overlay Nodes 1615MapInfo Forum (Microsoft Network) 1209Buffer 1606MapInfo on the World Wide Web 1210Smooth 1602Send Window as metafile 114Unsmooth 1603Send Workspace 115Convert to Regions 1607About MapInfo 1205Convert to Polylines 1604

Window-specific menusQuery Menu (ID 13)

Select 301

Map menu (ID 9)SQL Select 302Select All 303Unselect All 304Find 305 Layer Control 801Find Selection 306 Create Thematic Map 307Calculate Statistics 309 Modify Thematic Map 308Maintenance submenu Change View 805





Table Structure 404 Clone View 811 Delete Table 409 Previous View 806 Rename Table 410 View Entire Layer 807 Pack Table 403 Clear Custom Labels 814Make ODBC Table Mappable 415 Save Cosmetic Objects 809Change ODBC Table Symbol 418 Clear Cosmetic Layer 810Unlink ODBC Table 416 Set Clip Region 812

Appendix IV: Modifying the Menus and Toolbars

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Clip Region On/Off 813 ToolButton 25 1719 FrameDigitizer Setup 803 ToggleButton 26 1601 ReshapeOptions 802 ToolButton 27 1723 Add Node

Layout menu (ID 10)

PushButton 28 503 Symbol StylePushButton 29 501 Line StylePushButton 30 502 Region StylePushButton 31 504 Text Style

Change Zoom 902

Main button pad ( ID 1)View Actual Size 903View Entire Layout 904Previous View 905Bring to Front 906 ToolButton 0 1701 SelectSend to Back 907 ToolButton 1 1722 Marquee SelectAlign Objects 908 ToolButton 2 1703 Radius SelectCreate Drop Shadows 909 ToolButton 3 1704 Boundary SelectOptions 901 ToolButton 4 1705 Zoom-in

Browse menu (ID 8)

ToolButton 5 1706 Zoom-outPushButton 6 805 Change ViewToolButton 7 1702 GrabberToolButton 8 1707 Info

Pick Fields 704 ToolButton 9 1708 LabelOptions 703 ToolButton 37 1734 Drag Map Window

Graph menu (ID 11)PushButton 10 801 Layer ControlToolButton 11 1710 RulerToggleButton 12 606 Show/Hide LegendToggleButton 13 607 Show/Hide Statistics

Graph Type 1001 PushButton 187 706 Set Target DistrictLabel Axis 1002 PushButton 188 705 Assign Selected ObjsValue Axis 1003 ToggleButton 35 813 Clip Region On/OffSeries 1004 PushButton 36 812 Set Clip Region

MapBasic menu (ID 12) Tools button pad (ID 3)

Clear Contents 1101 PushButton 32 110 Run MapBasicPrgrmSave Contents 1102

Redistrict menu (ID 13)ToggleButton 33 608 Show/Hide

MapBasic Window

Standard button pad (ID 4)Assign Selected Objects 705Set Target District from Map 706Add District 707 PushButton 38 101 New TableDelete Target District 708 PushButton 39 102 Open TableOptions 709 PushButton 40 105 Save Table

MapInfo button pad iconsand calling codes(organised by default button pads)

PushButton 41 112 Print WindowPushbutton 42 202 CutPushbutton 43 203 CopyPushbutton 44 204 PastePushButton 45 201 UndoPushButton 175 601 New BrowserPushButton 176 602 New MapperPushButton 177 603 New Grapher

Information is in the order:

Type of buttonIcon codeCalling codeName of button

PushButton 178 604 New LayoutPushButton 179 615 New RedistricterPushButton 46 1207 Help

ODBC button pad (ID 5)

Drawing button pad (ID 2)PushButton 321 116 Open ODBC TablePushButton 322 417 Refresh ODBC TablePushButton 323 416 Unlink ODBC TablePushButton 324 415 Make ODBC Table

MappableToolButton 16 1711 SymbolToolButton 17 1712 Line

PushButton 325 418 Change symbol formappable ODBC tble

ToolButton 18 1713 Polyline





ToolButton 19 1716 ArcToolButton 20 1714 PolygonToolButton 21 1715 EllipseToolButton 22 1717 RectangleToolButton 23 1718 Rounded RectangleToolButton 24 1709 Text

Appendix IV: Modifying the Menus and Toolbars

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Understanding MapInfo: A Structured GuideIan Johnson 1996. Archaeology (P&H), University of Sydney

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3D data, 17 Autoload button, 248Abbreviations, 36, 56, 70, 105, 140, 181

alphanumeric 35Autoload MapBasic programs, 246Automatic insertion of join, 171, 173

Accuracy,decimal, 34of positional information, 57

Automatic reloading of workspace, 242Autoscroll, 78, 98, 109, 111, 217Autotrace, 112, 211

Active window, 29, 80 Average, 95, 132, 135, 159Add button, 29, 35, 41, 135

control points, 215Background/info/colour, 14, 31, 117, 118, 233Bad projection, effects, 215

Add Control Point dialogue, 221 Bar charts, 188, 189, 191, 197, 201Add Field, 33, 41 Base tables, 100, 101, 172Add new temporary column, 159 BIL format files, 219Add records to an existing selection, 93 Bitmap file, 63, 238, 246Add Ring button, 149 Bitmap image, 11, 117, 209, 219, 220Added to/removed from the current selection, 154 Blank, in data aggregation, 133Adding new coordinate systems, 39 BMP format files, 219Adding new nodes, 124 Borders, 233Adding new records, 154, 157, 164, 165, 167, 168, 170,

172Boundary Column, in geocoding, 71Boundary Select tool, 86

Adding tabular data, 109 Browse Results box, 89, 153, 168Adding to or changing current selection, 85, 87, 88 Browse>Options, 94Adding to seamless tables, 100 Browse>Pick Fields, 93, 94Addition of workspaces, 48 Browser, 8, 28, 29, 84, 89, 230, 236

column order, 93columns, customise 92-94display options, 138entering tabular data, 109font size, 92naming, 93query results, 168seamless tables, 101tables, 30

Address Matching Preferences, 242Address-based geocoding, 70Adjust column widths, 93Aerial photographs, 11, 210, 219-220, 222Aggregates/data/functions, 25, 158, 159, 160, 163, 165,

166, 182, 187, 188, 201calculation for defined areas, 177data from many objects, 156, 160

Aggregation Method, 132Aggregation of tabular data, 89, 132, 156, 162 Buffering, 147-149

selection of objects, 147From Column option, 148

Aliases 166column names in SQL, 166use in place of field names, 166 Button pad,

dragging 23buttons, 20, 23

Aligning objects on layouts, 231All Layers, 30, 79Alphabetic ordering, see Sorting, Alphabetic Buttons, on digitiser, 217

CAD, see also AutoCAD 63, 212Alt F8, 116AMG (Australian Map Grid), 38, 214 Cadastral plan, 112Anchor Point boxes, 142 Calculate,

in Column Update, 159aggregates for defined areas, 177new field values, 156

AND between selection conditions, 166Append,

effect of different coordinate system, 155effect of different field order, 155records, 155

Calendar dates, 34Cancelling map drawing, 21

Application of styles, 116 Capturing from video, 219Arbitrary plan coordinates, 63 Cartesian coordinates, 37-38, 63, 210Arc tool, 108 Cartographic line styles, 117Arc-node

recording/digitisation, 211, 218polygon conversion, 218

CD-ROMs, 212Cell range, spreadsheet import 54Cell resolution, 16

Arc/Info, 212 Cell-based data, see RasterArchaeology, 24

archaeological sites, 52archaeological survey projects, 24

CELLVECT, 209Center of window, 79Centroids, 8, 75, 156

Architectural features, 27 CGM format files, 237Arcs, 9, 12, 122 Change

font style, 144frame content, 229scale of map, 78selection, 92shape of objects 112size & proportions, 122symbols, 65target district, 137

Area, 8, 156Area objects, 13, 14, 116Area Proportion, 133Areas within a given distance, 147Arithmetic operators/calculations, 90, 165Arrow line, 121Arrows, displacement of labels, 125Artefacts, 12, 26, 52ASCII delimited, 8, 53-56, 64, 76, 113, 161, 203

preparing data for, 56Change Table Name button, 61Character data type, 33-34, 56, 64, 90, 93

ASCII format, 28, 39, 74 Character size, see Font sizeAspect Ratio Adjustment, 241 Check box/checked, 20Assist button, 90

customising columns with expressions, 94in column update, 158

Choose Projection dialogue, 38





Circle/ellipse tool, 108Classifications, 35

Associating tabular data, 109, 113, 133, 154 Clear button, 149, 163Attribute (tabular) data, 2, 7 Clipping, 99, 130, 238Attributes, 10 Cloned views, see also OLE, 232AutoCAD, 8, 10, 74, 212

automatic label, 111, 139, 140, 143-145, 209


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Closed objects, 14, 123, 127closure of areas/lines, 217closure of polygons, 15

points, 64redistrict window, 134seamless table, 100

Closing tables, 45, 168 Cross-hairs, 125, 216Coded data, 34-35 Crosstabulation, 170Coding, alphanumeric, 35 Ctrl, as tool modifier, 108, 112Coincident nodes, 123 Ctrl F8, 116Collection units, locations, 25, 27 Ctrl-C, 111, 113, 114, 115Color Defaults, 241 Ctrl-L, 80Colours, 14, 240, 247 Ctrl-N, 154Column button, 90, 163 Ctrl-R, 122Column labels/titles, 92-94

in ASCII file, 76Ctrl-T, 128Ctrl-V, 111, 113, 114, 115

Column statistics, 95 Ctrl-X, 113, 114Column to Update, 159 Ctrl-Z, 110, 154Column update, 157 Current Mapper, 29, 32Columns, 8

from multiple tables, 171in browser, 94

Current Selection, 85, 91, 92, 95, 110, 127, 154, 157statistics for, 95

Current text style, 108Combine objects, 128, 134

from table, 131records, 155

Current Value, 54Currently selected node, 123Cursor

disappears, 216location, 245

Combining data from two or more tables, 159Combine Objects Using Column, 131Comma or tab delimited file, see ASCII delimited Custom labels, 140, 143

Custom Scale box, 235Command line arguments, 249Customisation, 240

browser columns, 92-94colours, 247symbols, 246toolbars, 23

Commands, MapBasic 183Comparison operators, 90Complex expressions, 156Complex layouts, 228Computed fields, 8

Cut, see Copy, cut & pasteConcatenation of strings, 90Concentric buffers, 149 DAT file format, 8, 42Configuration, 240-245

of layouts, 227of labelling, 139

Dataanalysis, 202aggregation dialogue, 132collection, entry, 35disaggregation dialogue, 133exchange formats, 73linkage, 10presentation, 202storing options, 62types, 34

Context-sensitive help, 21Contiguous polygons, 218Contrast & brightness, 222-223Control points, 11, 211, 213, 215, 220, 221

from map, 222Controlling snaps, 126, 132Conventions, 20Conversion

field type, 64of graphics files, 237of vector data, 212polygons to polylines, 127polylines to polygons, 127programs, 58

Databaseengine, 162files, 64format, 28management systems, 73, 161query, 10system, for graphing, 203tables, 8Coordinates

aerial photographs, 220in degrees, 220limits, 38, 41system, 11, 37, 39, 74, 210, 213, 214, 219, 220transformations, 63

Date, data type, 34DBase DBF format, 8, 40, 42, 53, 55, 76, 161DCW (Digital Chart of the World), 212Decimal data type, 34

accuracy, 34Copy, cut & paste, 113-115

map window, 113nodes, 123

Decoding coded values, 181Default

format, 73graphs, 201length, 146non-spatial join, 160position, 143snap tolerance, 126style, 82, 119workspace file, 242

Copy BITMAP to clipboard, 114Copy Metafile to Clipboard, 114Copy TEXT to clipboard, 114CorelDraw/Trace, 212, 237Corporate databases, 162Cosmetic Layer, 45, 84, 103, 113, 146Cosmetic Objects, 244Count, 135, 159, 167, 198

records, grouped by columns, 167Define Custom Colors dialogue:, 247Defined block of cells, 54

Create nodes, 127 Deleteall map objects, 41, 65nodes, 123records, 91, 154selected map objects, 65, 110tabular data & map objects, 154

Create Separate Tables, from DXF 60, 61Create symbols, 186Create Thematic Map, 198





CreateCircle/Line/Point, 66Creating

grids, 206map objects, 64new districts, 137new objects, 66new table, 32

Delimited ASCII, see ASCII delimitedDEM (Digital Elevation Model), 3, 17Descending sort keyword, DESC, 168Descriptive statistics, 35, 95Desktop scanners, 16


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Dialogue boxes, 20, 21, 114, 183 Edit>Reshape, 122DIG format files, 216 Edit>Undo, 110, 154, 241Digital Chart of the World, 212 Editable layer, 34, 81, 84, 108, 110, 114, 126, 147, 148,

216Digital video cameras, 16Digitisation/digitised data, 87, 108, 124, 125, 210, 212,

214, 217, 218from aerial photographs, 222irregular areas, 217mode, 216of polygons, 112, 130, 218packages, 212speed, 217strengths & weaknesses, 211with GPS, 224

Editing,district field, 137map objects, 82tabular data values, 91, 152titles, 198

Effects, applied to text, 117Elimination of records by exclusive join, 172Ellipses, 9, 13Embedded Legends, 199Encapsulated PostScript, see EPS

Digitising tablet, 9, 210, 217drivers, 125, 213pointer, 125puck buttons, 213

Enhanced SQL, 191Entering map objects directly, 67EPS format files, 237Equal Count, 195

Directory, paths, 33, 42, 48 Equal Ranges, 195Directory Preferences dialogue, 243 Equator, 39Disaggregation, see Data disaggregation Erasing objects, 129-130

Erase Outside, 128Discarding changes, 44Disk space, requirements for joins, 173 Error column, digitising/control points, 220, 221, 215, 225Displacement arrows, 125 Error message, 59, 172Display

map of points, 67style, 81, 137within zoom range, 82

Errors in the data, 190Escape, cancellation of draw, 21Existing data, 52Existing map objects, 65, 68

Display Additional Column, 72 Existing tables & tabular data, 28, 67Display button, 82, 88, 169 Exploratory graphing, 202Distance measurement, 146

between nodes, 125Export Table to File dialogue, 74Exporting

graphics as vector file, 237calculated data, 161data from table, 73map window, 238

Distortion of grid, by bitmap, 209District Field, 134, 135

editing, 137Districts, 134,

display of, 136sort order, 138

Expression dialogue, 90Expressions, 90, 91, 94, 140, 156

in SQL Select, 163, 165Districts Browser, 135Dot density thematic maps, 194 F1, help, 21Double click,

to modify objects, 120-121text object, 108

F2, 29, 41, 67F3, 29F4, 201

Drag & drop, tool, 109, 115 F5, 226Drawing, 23, 244

arrows, 117contiguous polygons, 112directly on layout, 226new objects, 108tools, toolbox, 108, 229

F6, 216F7, 120F8, 93, 116Faster retrievals, 35, 55Fields, 8, 36

information, 33names, 33, 55, 56, 76names and types, 41, 53, 55names, prefixed by table name, 171values, 165width, 35

Drawing Exchange Files, see DXFDrive/directory, 44Drop shadows, 233Duplicate nodes, moving, 123, 126Duplicate Text, 140

Fields to Browse, 135Duplicated boundaries, 112File Format box, raster image, 219Duplication of

data into multiple records, 160selected objects, 111

File Format pulldown, 52, 73File names, 20File transfers, 54DXF, 8, 9, 16, 43, 58, 60, 74, 174, 212

file header, 60layers, 60

File>Close All, 45File>Close Table, 45File>New Table, 31, 32, 80DXF Import Information dialogue, 62File>Open ODBC Table, 53DXF Table Name dialogue, 60File>Open Table, 28, 52, 63, 80, 219Dynamic joins, 172File>Open Workspace, 43, 47Earth coordinate system, projection, 37-38, 62, 155File>Page Setup, 227, 228, 234Edit Control Point dialogue, 215, 221, 222File>Print, 234Edit text, style modification, 108File>Properties, 49, 249Edit>Clear, 110File>Revert Table, 44, 133Edit>Clear Map Objects Only, 65, 110File>Run MapBasic Program, 43, 96, 248Edit>Convert to Polylines, 127File>Save Copy As, 38, 44, 48, 55, 75, 91, 161, 176, 191Edit>Convert to Regions, 127





File>Save Table, 44, 133Edit>Copy, 111, 113File>Save Window As, 238Edit>Copy Map Window, 113, 115, 232File>Save Workspace, 47Edit>Get Info, 116, 120Fill Frame with Map dialogue, 229Edit>New Row, 109, 154Fill pattern, 99, 135Edit>Paste, 111, 113, 114Filter program, 74Edit>Paste Map Window, 113, 232Filtering of records, SQL query, 166Edit>Paste Special, 114, 115


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Final layout, 43 House numbers, 242Find dialogue 69, 104 HPGL (Hewlett Packard Graphics Language), 237Finding

selection, 88specified values, 102

Icons, 20ID file extension, 42Identification number or code, 33, 140

Finding non-geocoded records, 69 Ignore Zeroes or Blanks, 190Fit map to new window, 244 Image analysis software, 16Flags, in the margin, 21 Image file extensions, 219Float data type, 34 Image Registration dialogue, 220Floating point decimal number, 34 Image styles (brightness, contrast, transparency), 222-223Floating toolbox, 84 Import into Table dialogue, 61Font, 14, 121

list, 117size, 92, 121style, changing, 144

Importing DXF files, see DXFIncorrect relational join, 160Increasing coverage of non-earth map, 41IND file extension, 42

For Objects in Column, search 102 Indexed fields/file, 36, 41, 42in find, 102file naming, 42for Find, 36

Foreground colour, 14, 118Foreign format data files, 52Frame grabbers, 16Frame Object dialogue, 229, 230 Indexes, re-creation on the fly, 36Frames, 226, 230, 233

content, changing, 229line style, 233

Individual label style, 143Individual Values thematic layer, 136Individually located finds, 200

Frames for All Currently Open Windows, 226 Individually named objects, 102Free-format text, 34 Info tool, 8, 67, 84, 93, 109, 152, 209

entering tabular data with, 109, 152From tables clause, 72, 165-166Function keys, 20 Information, on object, 120Functions/function button, 20, 90, 163 Information dialogue, 245Generating new tabular data, 169 Initial Directories for File Dialogs, 243Geocode Options dialogue, 71 Inserting new frames, 230Geocoding, 36, 68-72

failures, 70inexact matches, 72options, 72street address, 70with boundaries, 71

Insertion marker, 81Integer data types, 34Interactive mode, geocoding, 72Interactive radio button, 69Into table, SQL selection, 168Islands, 130

Geodetic datum, 39 Join button, 157, 159, 191in column update, 160Geographic coordinates, 68

Geographic operators, functions, 90, 165 Joins, joining, 10, 31, 36, 159, 174conditions, 171criteria, 160dialogue, 160dynamic, 172exclusive, effect on results, 172, 174in SQL select, 166, 171in thematic mapping, 190key fields, 174, 191one-to-many, 177one-to-one, 175relational, 174spatial, 174

Geographical names, 140Geology, 13, 24, 100, 218Geometrical forms, 14Get X/Y Coordinates from Column, 64GIF file format, 219GIS (Geographic Information Systems), 2, 16, 206, 218GISNet MapInfo FTP site, 124, 156, 163, 198, 211, 249Go To button, 221GPS (Global Positioning System), 9, 211, 222, 244Grabber tool, 30, 78, 228, 245Graduated symbols, 186, 194

option, 147Graph>Graph Type, 202 JPG file format, 219Graph>Label axis, 202 Key fields, in joins, 174, 191Graph>Series, 203 KGM Utilities, 156, 191, 249Graph>Value axis, 202 Label button, 81,139Graphical (Map) data/objects, 2, 7 Label lines, 141

options, 121Graphical applications, 114Graph

area, 201legends, 203graphing, 201-203windows, 203, 230

Label Object dialogue, 143Label Offset, 142Label Options dialogue, 140, 143Label Style dialogue, 143Label tool, 139, 140, 141, 143

Greenwich meridian, 39, 64 Labelling, 13, 81, 111, 119, 139, 141automatic, 111, 139, 143-145, 209axes, 202graphs, 203grid squares, 144, 209large numbers of objects, 111with unique identifying information, 140

Grid coordinates/systems, 24, 27, 38, 74Grid squares/lines, 25-27, 57, 142, 208GridMake & GridMakr 206-208Group by Columns, 166Group finds, 57, 200Grouping objects by column, 131Haloing, of text, 121 Labels to be moved, selection of, 144Hand icon, see Grabber Lambert Conformal Conic, 37, 211, 214Handles, 85, 110, 122 Laser printer, 219





Hardcopy, different from screen, 198 Latitude, 24, 37-39, 41, 57, 64, 74, 210, 220Heads-up (on-screen) digitising, 11, 210, 219 Latitude-longitude grid, 208Help, 21 Layer Control, 80-81, 87, 88

application to thematic layers, 193Add button, 80dialogue, 29, 41, 101, 139, 142, 145, 169Display button, 81

Hierarchical abbreviations, 36Highlight Control, in Options>Preferences, 244Histograms, 149, 201Historic plans, 24-25, 211


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display order, 80editable, 81Label button, 81Remove button, 80selectable, 81Thematic button, 81Up/down button, 80visible, 81

new map window, 32managment of, 79

Map Window Manager, 98Map Window Preferences, 241Map Window Settings, 240, 244Map>Change View, 30, 79, 216Map>Clear Cosmetic Objects, 84Map>Clear Custom Labels, 145

Layers, see Map layers Map>Clip Region Off, 99Map>Clone View, 113, 232Layout menu, 228Map>Create Thematic Map, 186Layout Zoom dialogue, 228Map>Digitizer Setup, 213Layout>Align Objects, 231Map>Layer Control, 29, 80, 86, 96, 139, 169, 123Layout>Bring to Front, 232Map>Layer Control>Label Options, 143, 144Layout>Change Zoom, 141, 228Map>Modify Thematic Map, 193Layout>Create Drop Shadows, 233Map>Options, 240, 244Layout>Options, 141, 227Map>Options>Distance Units, 146Layout>Previous View, 228Map>Previous View, 30, 78, 79Layout>Send to Back, 232Map>Save Cosmetic Objects, 45, 84Layout>View Actual Size, 228Map>Set Clip Region, 99Layout>View Entire Layout, 228Map>View Entire Layer, 30, 67, 79Layouts, layout window, 108, 141, 146, 226, 229, 231, 232

size, 228text on layout, 119with no frames, 226

MapBasic/programs, 23, 43, 49, 66, 79, 96, 98, 100, 117,145, 149, 156, 188, 191, 199, 207, 240, 243, 246, 248commands, 183programming language, 183Left mouse button, 80

MapBasic Window, 66, 163, 183Legend button, 192, 198MapBasic>Load Contents, lack of, 183Legend Manager, 199MapBasic>Save Contents, 183Legend titles, customisation, 203MapInfo Interchange Format (MIF/MID), see MIFLegend window, 192, 193, 203

Legends, embedded, 199 MapInfo native format, 40, 42Like operator, 90 MapInfo tables, 28Limits, see Maximum MAPINFOW.ABB, 70, 105

MAPINFOW.EXE, 249Line graphs, 201MAPINFOW.MNU, 22, 23, 250Line objects, 12, 14, 66, 116

style, 14, 117style, in redistrict, 135

MAPINFOW.PRF, 49MAPINFOW.PRJ, 39, 214MAPINFOW.WOR, 43, 49, 242Line thinning, lack of, 211MapMarker, 70Line tool, 108Mappable, 42Linking tabular and map data, 15, 42, 175Mapper, see Map WindowLinking-in data, 179-181

Links by spatial co-occurence, 159 Mappinga selection, 88objects within a site, 25seamless tables, 101sites, 24SQL Selection results, 169

Lists, 36Load SQL query button, 163Locking of files/records, 84, 113, 152Logical data type/values, 34, 156Longitude, see Latitude

Mapping authorities, 39, 212, 215Lookup code values/table 33, 181Mapping zone, 39Lookups and owners, 179MapWin.MBX, 98Loss of data in redefining field type, 41Mark with Symbol button, 102Loss of projection and coordinate limits, 65Marking Specified Values, 102Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet, 53Marquee selection, 85-86Main toolbox, 23Mask objects, 129Managing map views, 96Match Found in a Different Boundary, 71Many-to-one Joins, 179Max. zoom, 82Map base, 206Maximising the active layout area, 227Map data/objects, 2, 7, 9, 12, 14, 27, 41, 42, 52, 64, 65, 68,

73, 74, 89, 110, 113, 120, 172, 175coordinates of, 57deletion when record deleted, 110in expressions, 169labels, 13styles, 116

Maximum field width, 34Maximum Labels, 140, 142Maximum symbol size, 117Maximum value, 159MBX files, 43, 248Menu structure, modification of, 43Menus, 240, 250MAP file extension, 42Metafile, 238Map grid, 219Metric Distance and Area Units, 244Map information, 24Microsoft Excel, 53Map labels, warn prior to loss of, 244Microsoft Word, 6, 115Map layers, 6, 31, 84

disappearance of, 41which fail to plot, 83, 116

MID file extension, see MIFMIF (MapInfo Interchange Format), 9, 43, 58, 73, 74, 161,

209, 212Map objects, see ObjectsMin. zoom, 82Map overview, 96Minimum value, 159Map projection, see Coordinates





Misplaced decimal point, 67Map scale, 79, 245Missing

data, 36labels, 142SQL records, 172

Map size, 235Map units, 213, 245Map views, 79Map window, 9, 28, 78, 80, 84, 108, 113-115, 136, 139,

186, 238, 245, 246 Modify button, 243


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Modifyingbrowser layout, 93existing objects, 14, 110label text, 143map window title, 98menus, 250object style, 116position of object, 120text objects, 120thematic layer, 193toolbars, 250

Non-numeric fields, in aggregation, 132Non-projected maps, 214Nosplash, 249Null symbol, 117Number of Undo Objects, 241Numeric codes, 34-35, 181Numeric data/field type, 35, 64, 90, 132, 156Numeric order, sorting in SQL query, 167NViews.MBX, 97NViews.TXT, 97Obj, 178

in an expression, 169Monitor Setting, 198Move duplicate nodes in ... the same layer, 126, 244 Object

buffer, 66centroid, 66, 123drawing tools, 9embedding, 115information dialogue, 116insertion into editable layer, 84labels, 119precise positioning, 125selection, from one layer at a time, 110styles, 14Objects menu, 128overlap, 143

Moving,centroids, 123data, 48from field to field, 21map objects, 111, 134map window, 78multiple labels, 144multiple objects, 111nodes, 122-123objects outside defined coordinates, effect of, 111objects within/between layers, 114off-screen objects, 111single object, 111 Object linking and embedding, 115

Multi-page layout, 228 Objects>Buffer, 147Multi-polygon region objects, 74 Objects>Combine, 99, 128, 129, 131, 132, 217Multi-section polylines, 127 Objects>Convert to Polylines, 122Multi-Table SQL Selection, 171 Objects>Convert to Regions, 122Multiple

browser windows, 93clipped areas, 99districts, 136fields, 132labels, 143maps, digitising from, 217nodes, selection, deletion & moving, 123objects, deletion & moving, 111, 112objects, dragging, 111, 144objects, dragging handles, 112objects, selection, 22, 60, 80polygon regions, 127polygons, in DXF, 61record linking, 173records, thematic mapping, 188tables, column update, 158tables in seamless layer, 100thematic layers, on map window, 192, 200

Objects>Erase, 129, 130, 133Objects>Erase Outside, 129, 133Objects>Overlay Nodes, 127Objects>Set Target, 128, 129Objects>Smooth, 124Objects>Split, 129, 133Objects>Unsmooth, 124ODBC, drivers, tables, 53-55Old-style labelling, 145OLE version 2, 115On-line Help, 21One buffer for each object, 148One buffer of all objects, 148One-to-many joins, 177One-to-one joins, 175One-way transfer of data, 55Open Table dialogue, 52Opening closed objects, 127Opening existing tables, 28

N, no symbol, no line and no fill, 117-118 Opening tabular data files, 52Name box, 33 Operators & functions/Operator button, 20, 90, 163Named Range, 54 Options and preferences, 240Named Views, 97 Options button, 62, 105Naming conventions for index files, 42 Options menu, 116National Grid, 206 Options>Button Pads, 23Native map projection, 33, 38, 74 Options>Custom Colors, 120, 240, 247Natural Break, 195 Options>Hide MapBasic Window, 183Nested sub-selects, not supported, 182 Options>Line Style, 116New Browser Window, 101 Options>Preferences, 240New Layout Window, 226 Options>Preferences>Map Window, 123, 126, 128, 244New Mapper Window, 29 Options>Preferences>Startup, 43, 49New nodes, 124 Options>Preferences>System Settings, 110, 114, 235New Redistrict Window, 134 Options>Preferences>System Settings>Aspect Ratio

Adjustment, 245New symbols, 117New table (layer), 31-32 Options>Preferences>System Settings>Paper and Layout

Units, 146No Data box, 133No map object, selecting records with, 169 Options>Region Style, 116, 233No-go icon, 115 Options>Show MapBasic Window, 66, 183Node addition tool, 122, 124 Options>Show/Hide Legend Window, 192Node editing, 122 Options>Show/Hide Status Bar, 84, 110Node snap, 125 Options>Symbol Style, 65, 116Nodes, 9, 15, 113, 122,211 Options>Text Style, 93, 119, 144





Nodes, coincident, 123 Options>Toolbars, 23Nominal scale (category) variables, 35 OR between selection conditions, 166Non-adjacent layers, effect of dragging, 81 Order by columns, 167Non-Earth maps/coordinates, 37, 38, 41, 62, 111, 245

effect of appending to Earth coordinates, 155Order of display of layers, 80Order of where conditions, SQL select, 171

Non-grouped field in grouped SQL query, 167 Ordinal value, 36Non-mappable table, 10, 74 Origin, of coordinate system, 39


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Overlapping text, 140 Puzzlement, 21Overlaying nodes, 127 Quantile, 195Overview.MBX, 96 Queries, 89Owners, relational, 179 Query results, browsing 168Packing tables/deleted records, 46, 154 Query>Calculate Statistics, 95Page breaks, 228 Query>Find, 102-103Panning, 78 Query>Find Selection, 88Paper and Layout Units, 241 Query>Select, 69, 89, 102Parallax errors, 222 Query>Select All from, 90-92Paste, see Copy, cut & paste Query>SQL Select, 69, 89, 102, 134, 156, 162,

Query>Unselect All, 91, 92, 115Pastinginto a read-only table, 113into a spreadsheet, 114into a text application, 114text to a map window, 114

Queryxx tables, 85, 91, 93, 168removing, 168

Quick Start dialogue, 43, 49, 242Quote mark, double ("), 90R_BUFFER.MBX,, 149Patterns, 14, 118Radio buttons, 62, 160PCX file format, 219Radius, of ring buffers, 149Percent, 135Radius Select tool, 86Perimeter, 8, 156Randomly placed symbols, 186Permanent query tables, 184Range labelling, in thematic mapping, 198Permanent table on disk, 91, 161Range of cells, in spreadsheet import, 54Pick Color dialogue, 247Ranges button, 192, 195Pie charts, 189, 191, 197

in graphs, 201in thematic mapping, 188

Ranges or value, exclusion of, 198Raster (cell-based) data, 16, 17, 206,Raster images, 11, 44, 219, 223Pixellated sources, 16Raster to vector conversion, 212Plans, 214

cartesian, 222 Read-only files/tables, 84, 152Real-world coordinates, 63, 210, 212, 213, 215Point mode/stream mode toggle, lack of, 211Reallocating objects, 136Point object style, 117Record numbers, 176Point objects, 9, 12, 14, 15, 52, 57, 68, 70, 108,Records, 8

output from SQL query, 172recovering deleted records, 46

Point size, 13, 14, 119, 141Polygon objects, 9, 13, 14, 61, 68, 70, 108, 123,Polygon tool, 108

Records without map object, selecting, 169Polygon/polyline conversion, 127Rectangles/rectangle tool, 9, 13, 108Polyline objects, 9, 12, 14, 108, 124, 127, 208Rectangular grids, 206Polyline tool, 108Redefined colours, 247Poorly provenanced objects, 57Redistrict menu, 137Position of labels, 142Redistrict>Add District, 137Positioning maps, 30, 78Redistrict>Assign Selected Objects., 136Postscript printer, 237Redistrict>Delete Target District, 138Precisely located objects, 57Redistrict>Options, 138Preferences, 240Redistrict>Set Target District from Map, 137Preferred View, 28Reducing font size, 93Preparing ASCII delimited data, 56Reducing data storage, 35Presence/absence, 34Redundant data, 161Presentation quality mapping, 16Refine Search with Table, 104Preserve attribute data, 60, 74Refining find with boundary, 104Preserve blocks as multi-polygon regions, 61Region Style, 118, 197Preserve current scale, 244Regional maps, studies, databases, 24, 206, 212Preserve multi polygon regions as DXF blocks,Regions, 15, 208Previewing labels, 141Registration, of map or raster image, 212, 213,Primary key, 36Regular grids, 206Print to file, 234Relational database, 10Printer page orientation, 227Relational join, 174, 178Printer page size, 227Reload button:, 246Printer setup, 234Removing

districts, 138labelling, 145Queryxx tables, 168

Printing, 234, 237Fit To Page, 235Options button, 235, 236from a browser, 236from a graph window, 236from a map window, 235the current window, 234

Renaming & deleting tables, 46Repositioning labels, 144Representation of objects, 81Rescaling, 112

text beyond map limits, 111Problems with SQL queries, 164Program directory, 39

Reshape mode, 122, 123Projected coordinate system, 37, 63, 209Reshape tool, 82, 126Projected grids, 206Reshape tool icon, 122Projected maps, 207, 211, 214, 245Resizing frames, 229Projection, 37, 62, 209Resizing map window, 244Projection button, 33, 37, 41, 62, 75, 213, 220,Resolution, 16Projection parameters, 214





Respecify button, 103Properties button/dialogue 234, 249Restore previous session, 43, 49Proportion average & sum 159Results of query, 91Proportional rescaling, 112Results of SQL query, 169Publication quality graphs, production of, 203Resume tracking for map overview, 96Pull-down menus, lists, 20-21, 183Reversed maps, 217, 223Punctuation characters, 33Right mouse button, 22, 79, 80, 228Put Result Code in Column pulldown, 72


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Rotated with line segments, 142 Shift-Tab, 153Rotation

angle, of text, 121of point objects 117using handle, 110

Shortcut to layer control, 80Shortcut menu, 22Show Centroids, 82, 123Show Frame Contents, 141, 228

Rows, in table, 8 Show Line Direction, 82Ruler tool/icon, 146, 245 Show Nodes, 82Rulers, in layouts, 227 Simple formula, 156Running commands in MapBasic window, 183 Simple lines, 9, 12, 121, 122, 124Sampling schemes, 206 Simple value lookup, 160Sampling units, 27 Single map object, editing tabular data, 152Satellite images, 11, 16, 219, 224 Single table column update, 157Save as Default box, 138 Sites and monuments registers, 24Save buttons, 163 Size & proportions, changing 122Save changes, 44 Slivers, 218Save Settings button, 194 Slow retrievals, causes, 56Saved query tables, 184 Small Integer data type, 33, 34Saving, 44

browser columns, 94calculated data, 161changes, 133copy of raster image, 44labels, 145layouts, 232results of redistricting, 138tables, 30

Smoothing, 124Smoothness

of buffers 148-149of grids, 208

Snapdistance, 125, 217mode, 86, 112, 125tolerance, 126, 244controlling, 126, 132

Saving commands to ASCII file, 183 Snapshot of current selection, 85Scale of map, changing 78 Soil maps, 112, 218SCALEBAR.MBX,, 146 Solid black squares, 92Scalebars, 146 Solid fill, white, 118Scaling labels, 144 Sort output records, in SQL query, 167Scanned plans & maps, 222 Sort Results by Column, 89Scanners & scanning, 16, 212, 219 Sorting, alphabetic, 90, 138, 167, 168Scratch pad for drawing, 84 Sorting, limitation on expressions 168Scroll bars, 245 Sorting, 36, 89, 162

descending, 168on more than one column, 167

Scrolling, automatic, 86Seamless tables/map layers, 100, 142

browsing 101 Source Table pulldown, 134SEAMMGR.MBX, 100 Sources of map data, 9Search Directories for Tables, 243 Sources of trouble, 21Search table, 68, 102 Southern hemisphere, 64Secondary keys, 36 Spatial

characteristics of map objects, 10data storage, 16join, 159, 174, 178, 191operations/functions, 73, 245relationships, 8

Select all, 91Select columns, 165Select tool, 86, 111, 112, 120, 123Selectable layers, 81, 85Selected objects, 122Selecting multiple layers in dialogues, 85 Spatially oriented analytical operations, 16Selecting objects within an area, 86 Spatially-registered data, 6Selection, 14, 36, 91, 92

application of column update to, 157browsing 154changing, 92criteria, 89-91from a browser, 88in snap mode, 125multiple objects, 85-86nodes, 123on the map window, 92overlapping objects, 87records/objects, 89records satisfying criteria, 166single object, 86table, 65, 67, 109, 153through layers, 87tool, 144

Special text effects, 121Specifying a join, 159, 171Speeding up

retrievals, 35, 55drawing, by thinning lines, 211

Spheroid, 39Splitting objects, 128, 129SPOT satellite images, 224Spreadsheets/ spreadsheet files, 8, 28, 54, 64, 113, 161,

202,SQL, 162SQL DataLink, 54SQL joins, requirement of permanent tables, 172SQL queries, 10, 72, 163, 249

column pull-down, 165display of results, 89non-standard, 163reliability, 164Set Coordinate Transformation dialogue, 62

Set Transformation button, 74 SRCHREPL.MBX, 161Setting control points, 220-221 Standard Deviation, 195Setting out layouts, 229 Standard parallels, 214Setting the target, 128 Standard symbols, 55Settings, map window, 244 Standard toolbar, 23





Settings button, 192, 194 Standardised presentation of data, 48Shade regular or irregular areas, 186 Standardising text object size, 119Shaded density maps, 57 Startup Options, 49Shading and colours, 198 Startup Preferences, 49, 242Shape of objects, changing, 112 Startup sequence, 49Shift-F8, 116 Startup settings, 240Shift key, 87, 93, 108, 112 STARTUP.WOR, 43, 49


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Statistical packages, 202, 203 Text beyond map limits, 111Statistics, 10, 95

descriptive 35, 95Text

data, 13descriptions, 56font size, 119, 145objects, 13, 14, 15, 111, 112, 116, 119orientation, 121style button & dialogue, 116, 118, 119, 121, 141, 144

Status bar, 84, 86, 110, 125, 245Storage requirements, 16, 35Store Elevation, in DXF, 62Store results in table, 89, 131Streamlining layout editing, 228Streamlining operations, 21 Text Object dialogue, 119, 120Street names, 242 Text tool, 108, 120StreetInfo databases, 70 TGA file format, 219String functions, labelling objects with, 140 Thematic button, on layer control, 193Structure, of records, 53, 54 Thematic layers, 81, 244Structure of records to be appended, 155 Thematic mapping, 14, 35, 65, 140, 173, 186, 189

aggregation, 190bar & pie charts, 186, 189, 191, 197bomb symbols, 192changing the order of fields, 189choice of data, 189creating standard styles, 199customising/customize buttons, 192-193customize individual styles, 196deriving new data, 190dot density, 187, 189expressions, 190fractional values, 194graduated, 187, 189individual, 187, 189joins, 190legends, 192, 198modify or combine fields, 190modifying range styles, 197modifying the thematic layer, 192negative values, 194numeric field types, 189ranges/ranges button, 187, 195recalculating values, 195representation of values, 192rounding values, 195saving settings, 199seamless map layers, 190settings, 194shading and colours, 198showing legends, 192tables, 189using buffers instead, 147whole numbers, 194

Structured Query Language, see SQLStyle button, 120, 121, 192, 196Style dialogues, 82, 116, 120, 141, 223, 244, 247Style

of graph, 203of text objects, 14, 116

Style Override, 82, 116Style settings, 149Styles indicating selected objects, customisation, 244Sub-selects, 182Sum, 95, 132, 135, 159Superimposition of objects, 232Symbols

custom, 246for point objects, 14, 65, 135style dialogue, in thematic mapping, 197

Symbol button, 194Symbol tool, 108SYMBOL.MBX, 246System Settings, 240-241Tab and shift-tab, 21, 152, 153TAB file, 42, 52, 184, 223Table files, see TAB fileTable information, 97Table is Mappable check box, 33, 41, 65Table>Append Rows To Table, 155Table>Combine Objects using Column, 129, 131, 132, 155Table>Create Points, 9, 52, 53, 64, 65, 66, 68, 110Table>Export, 73, 161Table>Geocode, 69Table>Import, 58, 60, 80, 209Table>Maintenance>Pack Table, 46, 145, 154Table>Maintenance>Rename, 46

Themes, 6Table>Maintenance>Table Structure, 33, 40, 64, 65, 93,135, 155, 157, 168 Thinning, of lines for faster draw, 211

TIF file format, 219Table>Open, 42TIN file extension, 42Table>Raster>Adjust Image Styles, 219, 222, 223Titles

column, 92editing 198labelling, 13, 98, 198

Table>Raster>Select Control Points from Map, 222Table>Update Column, 75, 93, 135, 156, 157, 158, 160,

173, 174, 191, 201applied to SQL results, 169

TMA file extension, 42TableMgr.MBX, 97Toolbar Options dialogue, 22Tables, 7, 28, 243

and map layers, 6browsing 30, 154maintenance, 46read/write, effect on data entry, 152structure modification, 40without map data, 32

Toolbars/toolboxes, 20, 23, 240, 250Toolbox icon, 116Tools, 23Tools menu, 97, 146, 149, 199, 248Tools toolbar, 97, 146, 248Tools>Concentric Ring Buffers>Create Ring Buffers, 149Tools>GridMaker>Create Grid, 207Tabular Data, 7, 8, 10, 26, 41, 42, 52, 58, 64, 68, 73, 74,

76, 89, 131, 109, 110, 111, 133, 139, 153, 175, 186,206definitions, fields, 33, 34, 177, 209editing, 91, 152file, 42from spatial characteristics of objects, 156generated by GridMake, 209

Tools>Legend Manager>Create Embedded Legend, 199Tools>Legend Manager>Remove Embedded Legend., 199Tools>Legend Manager>Show/Hide Floating Legend

Window, 200Tools>Map Window Manager>Set Default View, 30, 98Tools>Map Window Manager>Set Window Autoscroll, 98Tools>Map Window Manager>Set Window Title, 98Tools>Overview>Pick Frame Style., 96Target district, 136, 137

changing 137





Tools>Overview>Setup Overview, 96Tools>Overview>Suspend Tracking, 96Target objects, 127Tools>Seamless Manager>Append To Seamless Table,

100TDA file extension, 42Templates, 229

Tools>Seamless Manager>New Seamless Table, 100Temporary browsers, 226Tools>Symbols, 246Temporary columns, 161, 191Tools>Symbols>Colors, 246Temporary tables, 72, 85, 91, 156, 162, 165, 176, 184


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Tools>Symbols>Create New, 240, 246 X,Y coordinates, 14, 26, 57, 124Tools>Symbols>Edit+Delete, 246 X/Y graphs, 201Tools>Symbols>Save, 246 XLS file format, 53Tools>Table Manager>Get Info, 97 ZipInfo files, 68Topmost selectable layer, 85, 87 Zoned projections, 214Topographic maps, features, 11, 24, 27, 37, 39, 206, 208-

212, 219, 220Zoom, 78, 142, 228, 232, 245Zoom (window width), 79

Tracing map objects, 210 Zoom in, 30, 111, 119, 141, 144Transferring data

from a database system, 55via a delimited file, 55

Zoom layering, 82-83, 140Zoom out, 30, 119, 144Zoom-in tool, 78

Transverse Mercator, see UTM Zoom-out tool, 78Trimble, 224 Zooming on a specific node, 125True Type Font, 117, 241True/False, 34Truncating long labels, 140TXT file type, 8, 42, 53, 56, 76Unable to select objects, 87Unchecked, 20Undo, limitation on objects 110Undoing edits, 110UNGenerate format, 212Units, 149Units button, 220, 221Unnecessary map-data files, 33Unprojected maps, 211Unregistered images, 219Unsmoothed, 124Up and Down buttons, 35UPD_COLS.MBX, 156Updating statistics as selection changes, 95US Defence Mapping Agency, 212Use Color Styles check box, 196Use first line for column titles, 55Use row above selected range for column titles, 54Use the closest address number, 70Useful tips, 21User-Defined Symbols, 246UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator), 37-39, 75, 206-

208, 210, 213, 214Value, disaggregation method, 133Value option, buffers 148Value search and replace, 161Values in text fields, 90Variables, 8Vector data/representation, 2, 9, 15, 16, 58, 210, 220, 238VecTrans, 55, 212Vertices, 15Video, capturing from, 219Viewing a specified area, 79Viewing layouts, 228Views, SQL, 162Views of the data, 6, 10Visibility, 140, 143Visible box, 140Weighted average, 159Where condition, 166, 173, 174, 178, 180, 182

use for join in SQL select, 171Whole numbers, 34Window field, 230Window menu, 226Window size, 235, 241Window width, 245Window>New Browser Window, 29, 30, 41, 67, 92, 153,

154, 109Window>New Grapher Window, 201Window>New Layout Window, 226Window>New Map Window, 29, 67, 88, 134Window>Show/Hide Statistics Window, 95Windows, use of, 29Windows metafile, 238Windows printer drivers, 234





Within-area selection of objects, 127WK/1/S/3/4, 8, 42, 53WMF (Windows Metafile), 237Word for Windows, 58, 237WOR/Workspace files, 43, 47, 84, 93, 145Wrong mapping zone or hemisphere, 39WYSIWYG, 141


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