BFL Report

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  • Internship Report Bindagi, Anuj Boving Fouress Ltd. July 31, 2014

    Page | 1

    INTRODUCTION

    This is a report of my internship at Boving Fouress Ltd. In my training period, I have been

    through various and have gathered basic information from each of these. This report is my

    attempt at presenting the knowledge garnered during this period.

    bfl- Boving Fouress Ltd.

    BFL offers total solutions for Small Hydro Electric Power Stations (up to 25 MW Single

    unit) starting right from the selection of machines to commissioning of the power plant, and is

    fully geared to execute projects on Water to Wire basis.

    Objective: Powering the world today for a better tomorrow

    BFLs Global presence

    India

    North America

    Latin America

    Turkey

    South Africa

    Zimbabwe

    Sri Lanka

    Indonesia

    Malaysia

    Vietnam

    Philippines

    Thailand

    VISION

    To become the worlds largest Small Hydro Turbine manufacturer in water to wire Electrical

    & Mechanical equipment by continually providing competitive solutions to the market.

  • Internship Report Bindagi, Anuj Boving Fouress Ltd. July 31, 2014

    Page | 2

    SMALL HYDRO POWER

    Small hydro power is the ability to generate power from potential energy of water flow at

    a height to kinetic energy which rotates the turbine. This rotation of turbine shaft is coupled to a

    generator converting mechanical energy to electrical energy.

    Components of Small Hydro Power

    1. Civil structures

    Intake channel

    Desilting tank: Debris in the water is allowed to settle down and also filters the

    water through the trash racks.

    Forebay tank

    Tailrace

    Intake gates/valves

    2. Hydro-mechanical structures

    Penstock

    Surge shaft

    3. Electro-mechanical structure

    4. Transmission lines

    HYDRO POWER PLANT

    Hydropower plants harness water's energy and use simple mechanics to convert that

    energy into electricity. Hydropower plants are based on a rather simple concept -- water flowing

    through a dam turns a turbine, which turns a generator.

    The basic components of the plant are:

    1. Dam: It holds back water creating a large reservoir

    2. Turbine: The water strikes and turns the large blades of a turbine, which is attached to a

    generator above it by way of a shaft.

    3. Generator: Generator is a device, which converts the Rotary Mechanical Energy in to an

    Electrical Energy.

  • Internship Report Bindagi, Anuj Boving Fouress Ltd. July 31, 2014

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    4. Transformer: The transformer inside the powerhouse takes the AC and converts it to

    higher-voltage current.

    5. The Auxiliaries: The auxiliaries like the Oil Pumping Unit and the Cooling Water

    Systems helps in the smooth operation of the power plant. Mechanical Balance of Plant

    Hydraulic Power Pack & Oil Pumping

    Cooling Water System Dewatering & Drainage System

    Compressed Air

    Siphon Arrangement

    Lubrication

    TG PACKAGE

    The Turbine and the Generator are collectively known as TG Package. The TG Package along

    with its control and monitoring equipments are housed in a Civil Structure called the

    Powerhouse.

    Types of Generators

    1. Synchronous generators

    A synchronous generator runs at a constant speed and draws its excitation from a power

    source external or independent of the load.

    Synchronous speed is calculated as follows:

    Ns = 120 f / p

    It Costs More

    2. Induction generators

    Induction Generators are special purpose motors that runs at super synchronous speed

    (speed slightly above the synchronous speed) i.e at negative slip, and it draws excitation

    power from grid.

    Slip = (Ns N) /NS

    It Costs Less

  • Internship Report Bindagi, Anuj Boving Fouress Ltd. July 31, 2014

    Page | 4

    TURBINE

    Hydraulic turbines are the machines which convert the kinetic and potential energies

    possessed by water into mechanical rotary motion or power. Hydro turbines are classified as:

    Impulse turbine

    Reaction turbine

    The difference between these two turbines is that, in an impulse turbine, the whole of the

    pressure of energy of the water is converted into kinetic energy before it tis passed onto the

    turbine wheel, whereas in a reaction turbine the water flows with both pressure and kinetic

    energies over the moving blades where its part of the pressure energy is converted into kinetic

    energy.

    Pelton Wheel

    It is an impulse turbine, works under high head and requires small quantity of water.

    Water from a high head source is supplied to the nozzle. The pressure energy of water is

    converted into kinetic energy. The high velocity water impinges on the curved blades. This sets

    up the pelton wheel to rotate in the direction of the impinging jet. Thus, the pressure energy is

    converted into mechanical energy.

  • Internship Report Bindagi, Anuj Boving Fouress Ltd. July 31, 2014

    Page | 5

    Francis Turbine

    It is a medium head reaction turbine in which water flows radially inwards. Water at high

    pressure enters through the inlet and flows radially inwards through the guide blades. The water

    flows inwards and finally discharges at the center at low pressure. During its flow, it imparts

    kinetic energy to the runner to set it into rotational motion.

    Francis Turbine (Reaction)

    Kaplan Turbine

    It is a low head reaction turbine in which water flows axially. Most of the parts of the

    turbine are like that of Francis turbine except the runner. The water at high pressure enters the

    turbine casing through the inlet and strikes the guide blades axially imparting kinetic energy to

    set it into rotational motion.

  • Internship Report Bindagi, Anuj Boving Fouress Ltd. July 31, 2014

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    OUTPUT OF A HYDRO POWER PLANT

    P = 9.81xHxQx where,

    P = The power generated in kilo watts

    H = The head measured in meters

    Q = The discharge measured in m/sec.

    = The efficiency of the plant i.e., the combined efficiency of the turbine, generator,

    transformer (normally between 0.80 to 0.85)

    The output power is measured in kilo watts or megawatts and is dependent on the head and

    discharge available for the machine.

    The Revenue

    The revenue from the plant is the number of units the plant generates multiplied by the

    unit price of sale of each unit.

    Revenue = No. of units generated x Unit Rate

    No. of units generated = capacity of the plant in kws x24hrs of a day x365days of a year x the

    rate per unit.

  • Internship Report Bindagi, Anuj Boving Fouress Ltd. July 31, 2014

    Page | 7

    Below is a small article published in The Hindu on July 27th which gives a general idea of the

    worth of a hydro power plant.

    http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/companies/rpower-to-buy-jaypee-group-hydro-projects-

    for-15000-cr/article6254869.ece

    5 S SYSTEM

    5S is a housekeeping system to reduce waste and optimize productivity through maintaining an

    orderly workplace and using visual posters and imagery to achieve consistent results.

    The 5S pillars, Sorting Out (Seiri), Orderly arrangement(Seiton), spic and Span(Seiso),

    Standardize (Seiketsu), and Sustain (Shitsuke), provide a methodology for organizing, cleaning

    and sustaining a efficient and clean work environment.

    SEIRI

    Sorting out techniques which involve eliminating unnecessary items from the workplace that are

    not needed for current production operations. An effective method used to identify these

    unneeded items is called "red tagging". A red tag is placed on all items that are not important for

    operations. Once the red tag items are identified, these items are then moved to an outer space

    http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/companies/rpower-to-buy-jaypee-group-hydro-projects-for-15000-cr/article6254869.ecehttp://www.thehindubusinessline.com/companies/rpower-to-buy-jaypee-group-hydro-projects-for-15000-cr/article6254869.ece

  • Internship Report Bindagi, Anuj Boving Fouress Ltd. July 31, 2014

    Page | 8

    area or the Rejected Items area for subsequent disposal or recycling. Sorting enables to reclaim

    valuable floor space and eliminate unnecessary items.

    SEITON

    Systematic arrangement

    Layout improvement and marking

    It focuses on creating efficient and effective storage methods to arrange items so that they are

    easy to use. This can only be implemented once all the unnecessary items have been eliminated

    (SEIRI). It includes painting floors (Green and Yellow), sticking labels and tags on every

    component to designate its proper storage locations, outlining work areas and locations.

    SEISO

    Spic and Span

    Regular and methodical cleaning

    Seiso is thorough cleaning of the area, tools, machines and other equipment to ensure that

    everything is returned to a clean status. This will ensure that if any defect stands out such as an

  • Internship Report Bindagi, Anuj Boving Fouress Ltd. July 31, 2014

    Page | 9

    oil leak from a machine is being addressed. It ensures standardized ways of working that will

    help remove the wastes from the processes and m