Beyond Anarchism

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Beyond Anarchism. Marinetti, Futurism, Futurist Anarchism University College of London (UK), dept. of Italian, 3.12.2008. Marja Härmänmaa, University of Helsinki, Finland / University of Cambridge, Clare Hall College. ”A visit”. In 1865 Mikhail Bakunin went to Naples - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Beyond Anarchism

  • Beyond AnarchismMarinetti, Futurism, Futurist AnarchismUniversity College of London (UK), dept. of Italian, 3.12.2008Marja Hrmnmaa, University of Helsinki, Finland / University of Cambridge, Clare Hall College

  • A visitIn 1865 Mikhail Bakunin went to NaplesCreation of Bakunins Anarchist ideologyFoundation of Anarchist movement in ItalyIn 1900 the murder of King Umberto I

  • Conceptualization of Futurist AnarchismSocial utopia of Futurism?The social meaning of Art?The role of the artist in society?

  • Italy cradle of AnarchismMikhail Bakunin (1814 1876)Errico Malatesta (1853-1932)Economically a poor countryDisappointment of unificationCorruption of the political classCultural and political anarchismDAnnunzioGian Pietro Lucini

  • Political radicalism & artistic anarchismAssociated around the mid 19th centuryChanged artistic institutionNew autonomy of arts and artistsCritique of middle class society and its materialistic valuesFrance: Symbolism and Impressionism

  • Marinettis early social interestsLe Roi Bombance (1905)Social revolution (led by the socialists Filippo Turati and Antonio Labriola)Before the IWWAgainst the politics of GiolittiConnections with extra pariamentary groups George Sorel and the theory of the use of violence

  • Marinetti and AnarchismTheme of destruction in the first worksLa conqute des toiles (1902)Destruction (1904)In Paris in contact with the AnarchistsAbbaye de Crteil, utopistic community of anarchist artists

  • Futurist anarchyFoundation of Futurism (1909): the most aggressive revolt of the modern man towards the past and the present timeArtistic anarchismAgainst the artistic traditionRupture of the artistic tradition in Modernism (partly) caused by the diffusion of anarchist ideas in arts

  • Conferenza su lamore del pericolo e leroismo quotidiano (1910)E voi, forse, non avete ancora un concetto esatto di ci che siamo e di quel che vogliamo. Immaginate nella malinconica e stagnante repubblica delle lettere e delle arti un gruppo di giovani assolutamente ribelle e demolitore che stanco di adorare il passato, nauseato dal pedantismo accademico, avido di originalit temeraria e anelante verso una vita avventurosa, energica e quotidianamente eroica, sgombrare lanima italiana da quel amasso [sic] di pregiudizi di luoghi comuni, di rispetti e di venerazioni che noi chiamiamo il passatismo. Insomma: degli anarchici in arte, ecco che cosa sono i futuristi.

  • Reasons to deny the past

    Judeo-christian conception of linear timeAdvent of the macchina had broken the chain of linear timeBeginning of a new eraPast did not exist

  • Prefazione futurista a Revolverate di Gian Pietro Lucini (1910)Il presente non mai come in questi tempi apparve staccato dalla catena genetica del passato, figlio di s stesso e generatore formidabile delle potenze future

  • Versions of AnarchismEnlightenmentWilliam Godwin (1756 1836)Peter Kropotkin (1842 1921)A perfect society communism RomanticismMikhail Bakunin (1814 1876)Max Stirner (1806 1856)Individual anarchism

  • Individual AnarchismMax Stirner: Der Einzige und sein Eigenthum (1844)No interest towards society nor towards the artsImportance of the individual as ego against everythingAll social institutions (government, church..) are artificial concepts and thus false authorities

  • Individual aestheticismArtist produces his uniqueness in artIndividualist makes art out of his own personalityEgoist makes art to promote himselfPartly explains the heterogeneity of modernist culture

  • Futurism as a work of artIn order to promote MarinettiAbsolute leader of the movementMafarka il futurista (1910)Mafarka = MarinettiGazourmah = Futurism

  • Nihilism of Cultural modernismMatei Calinescu:Otherness and change importantTradition of antitraditionFuture way out of rotten present, son of the pastWhen future moment is reached, it becomes present momentContinuous destruction / rejection

  • Futurist nichilism in artsFaith in progress Guerra sola igiene del mondo (1915)Abbiate fiducia nel progresso, che ha sempre ragione, anche quando ha torto, perch il movimento, la vita, la lotta, la speranza.Principle of eternal developmentNothing is supposed to lastWorks of art are to be destroyed when they are ready

  • LAeroplano del Papa (1912)Sono incessantemente commisto alle mie scorie. La mia vita la fusione perpetua dei miei frantumi. Distruggo per creare ed ancora distruggoper modellare statue tonantiche subito spezzo con lo schifo e il terrore di vederle durare!

  • Futurist nichilism in politicsBefore WW1 no social utopiaPrinciple of the eternal developmentIdeal: the everlasting state of warWar, worlds sole hygiene

  • Futurist political activityMarinettis growing interest towards politics after WW1First political manifesto (1913)Futurist political party (1918)Democrazia futurista (1919)Al di l del comunismo (1920)

  • Modernizing ItalyAbolition of Pope, monarchy, parliament and marriageA government of technicians in power with a council of Young people8-hours working day

  • Futurist Anarchist StateFinal result of the political programAn apolitical anarchistic utopiaNo class struggleAl di l del comunismoInstead of the proletariat, a spiritual aristocracy that has the right to realize the Italian revolution

  • ArtecraziaJean Grave (1854 1939)La societ mourante et lanarchie (1892)Anarchy is artArt = supreme form of individualismThe main duty of an anarchist society is to produce cultureOscar Wilde

  • DAnnunzio and FiumeThe Republic of Fiume (1919 - 1920)La Carta del CarnaroFree universityAcademy of fine artsSchools of musicIn every municipality an orchestra and a choir subsidized by the State and giving free concerts

  • Marinettis versionAl di l del comunismo (1920)Art is an alcohol that gives optimism to citizensNumber of artists must increase -> race of artistsIn every city a centre of geniusEvery month new exhibitions of art and poetry readings. Music: in every piazza a choir and an orchestraLife must become a work of art

  • Goodbye, anarchy! Il Futurismo un movimento schiettamente artistico ed ideologico. Interviene nelle lotte politiche soltanto nelle ore di grave pericolo per la Nazione. (Futurismo e Fascismo, 1924)

  • Avant-garde and totalitarianismMussolini in power in 1922Changed position of Futurism from antagonism to collaboration with the StateImportant position in the artistic life of the Fascist Italy (Venice Biennale)Marinetti member of lAccademia dItaliaMarinetti wrote 2-3 articles in the Italian Encyclopedia about FuturismMarinetti a special propagandist of the State in case of war

  • Anarchist artDifficult to defineArtistic anarchy towards society?Artistic anarchy within the tradition of art?Kropotkin and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon: Art must serve the revolutionDocumentary meaning: Social realism

  • Fascist art policyDiscussion started immediately when Mussolini became prime ministerFuturists wanted a strict artistic policyPolitical dictatorship artistic dictatorshipFuturism as the official art of FascismFuturism had collaborated in the foundation of Fascism (1919)Fascist Italy a modern State a need of a modern art

  • Art and anarchist societyKropotkin: Artist represented the conscience of humanityArtist was able to change social reality

  • Futurist art and societyMarinetti: art and literature have an enormous influence upon societyArt as a tool of social activityRejection of the conception art for arts sakeSocial role of artistSocial role of arts

  • Arte vitaIntroduction of life in artsEasy to understandArt in direct contact with life (antiacademic)Profanation of the Enlightened middle-class concept of sublime artCreate corageously uglySpite on the althare of the artsAbolition of the boundaries between art non artNew art forms: cuisineNew elements to arts: sport

  • Futurists and the Fascist artImpossibility to detach from the socio-political reality:The political spirit that Mussolini has created is so impressive that the artists could not escape its influence.

    The propagandistic aim of art: Art must serve a universal, political or nationalistic aim.

  • AerofuturismGlorification of the airplanes and aviationPropaganda of the technological progress of ItalyNationalistic reasonsThe spiritual element of flight: non-materialistic dimension of technology

  • Gerardo Dottori: Aeropittura, 1930s

  • Aeropittura di Tato, Dinamismo aereo, 1930s

  • Some strategies to disturb the orderAnarchism = antagonistic ideologyAvant-garde = aesthetic dimensionTerrorism = strategy of realization

  • Anarchism, now?Italy: reorganization of the anarchist movement in 1945 (Federazione anarchica italiana, FAI)Wikipedia: anarcho-capitalism, green anarchism, anarca-feminism, anarco-primitivism

  • Bourgeois anarchyInternet: cradle of anarchism, no authorityCollapse of Soviet UnionGrowing power of multi-national enterprisesNation States diminishing powerUmanit cammina verso lindividualismo anarchico, mta e sogno dogni spirito forte (Marinetti, 1920)

  • Futurist Anarchism now (1909-2009)?Marinettis anarchist strategyColourful languageArtistic and extra-artistic manifestationsAiming at getting attention and at hiding a mediocre writerModel of the modern intellectualTelevision series (The Idols)Politics (Berlusconi, Lega Nord)

  • Thanks!In everyone of us there is a little Anarchist at least occasionally! (M.H.)