BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE & WIC: SMALL TWEAKS TO MAKE A BIG ... ideas42 Poverty Interrupted: Applying...

download BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE & WIC: SMALL TWEAKS TO MAKE A BIG ... ideas42 Poverty Interrupted: Applying Behavioral

of 54

  • date post

    24-Jul-2020
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    0
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE & WIC: SMALL TWEAKS TO MAKE A BIG ... ideas42 Poverty Interrupted: Applying...

  • © 2017 ideas42 1

    BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE & WIC: SMALL TWEAKS TO MAKE A BIG DIFFERENCE Jonathan Hayes, Senior Associate

    Dani Grodsky, Senior Associate

    Thursday, April 20, 2017

  • © 2017 ideas42 2

    AGENDA

    •  What is ideas42 and behavioral science? •  The influence of context •  Application to public benefits programs •  Recommendations for WIC •  Q&A

  • © 2017 ideas42 3

    AGENDA

    •  What is ideas42 and behavioral science? •  The influence of context •  Application to public benefits programs •  Recommendations for WIC •  Q&A

  • © 2017 ideas42 4

    FIRST, A GAME…

  • © 2017 ideas42 5

    YOU HAVE ONE JOB…

    Say out loud the color of the shape you see on the screen.

  • © 2017 ideas42 6

  • © 2017 ideas42 7

  • © 2017 ideas42 8

  • © 2017 ideas42 9

  • © 2017 ideas42 10

    BLUE

  • © 2017 ideas42 11

    STANDARD DECISION MAKING MODEL Decision Action Outcome

    Do I want outcome X? What action must I take?

    A

    B

    Outcome X occurs or not.

    Yes

    No

    Yes

    No

  • © 2017 ideas42 12

    BEHAVIORAL DECISION MAKING MODEL

    A

    B

    Yes

    No

    Yes

    No

    I don’t know

    How hard is it?

    Will it take long?

    Am I in the mood?

    Can I put it off?

    Do I want outcome X? What action must I take? Outcome X occurs or not.

    Decision Action Outcome

  • © 2017 ideas42 13

    EXCELLENT AIRMEN COMMIT NO ERRORS

  • © 2017 ideas42 14

    CONTEXT MATTERS

  • © 2017 ideas42 15

    WHO ARE WE, REALLY?

  • © 2017 ideas42 16

    A nonprofit that uses the theories of behavioral science and psychology to design solutions to some of the world’s

    most persistent social problems.

  • © 2017 ideas42 17

    WE WORK ACROSS SEVERAL DOMAINS

    consumer finance

    economic mobility

    energy

    government

    international development education criminal justice

    health

  • © 2017 ideas42 18

    PROJECT METHODOLOGY

    Disentangle presumptions to

    arrive at a behavioral problem

    Study the context and identify key bottlenecks

    Create and refine a

    workable solution

    Test our solution and learning

    from the process

    DEFINE DIAGNOSE DESIGN TEST SCALE

    Spread successful

    interventions more widely

  • © 2017 ideas42 19

    AGENDA

    •  What is ideas42 and behavioral science? •  The influence of context •  Application to public benefits programs •  Recommendations for WIC •  Q&A

  • © 2017 ideas42 20

    THOUGHT EXPERIMENT A mother using WIC arrives over 20 minutes late for her appointment and you recall that she has been late multiple times before. What does this say about about her?

    Fundamental Attribution Error

    •  She does not value punctuality

    •  She does not appreciate her WIC benefits

    •  She is forgetful and irresponsible

    •  She can only leave once her husband returns from work to drive her

    •  She relies on friends or family to arrive on time to watch her children

    •  She must run multiple errands in the small window of time she’s off of work

    The Person The Situation

  • © 2017 ideas42 23

    CONTEXT HAS MULTIPLE MEANINGS

  • © 2017 ideas42 24

    Milkman, Katherine L., et al. (2011) "Using implementation intentions prompts to enhance influenza vaccination rates." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108(26): 10415-10420.

    CONTEXT AS COMMUNICATIONS

    VS

    27% increase in vaccine uptake

  • © 2017 ideas42 25

    CONTEXT HAS MULTIPLE MEANINGS

  • © 2017 ideas42 26

    Wansink, B., Painter, J.E., North, J. Bottomless bowls: why visual cues of portion size may influence intake. (2005) Obesity Research & Clinical Practice,13(1): 93-100.

    Regular Bowl vs. Refilling Bowl

    Those who ate from the refilling bowl had 73% more soup…

    Predicted that they ate 140 fewer calories than they actually did…

    And were no more likely to report being more full after the meal.

    CONTEXT AS VISUAL CUES

  • © 2017 ideas42 27

    CONTEXT HAS MULTIPLE MEANINGS

  • © 2017 ideas42 28

    CONTEXT OF SCARCITY

    •  Scarcity of any resource (e.g. time, money, food) takes up mental capacity and causes “tunneling” of the mind

    •  This can be adaptive in the short term

    •  But dangerous when chronic

  • © 2017 ideas42 29

    YOUR BRAIN UNDER SCARCITY

  • © 2017 ideas42 30

    QUANTIFYING THE BANDWIDTH TAX

  • © 2017 ideas42 31

    Mani, Mullainathan, Shafir, and Zhao, Science, 2013

    COGNITIVE CONTROL

    0"

    0.1"

    0.2"

    0.3"

    0.4"

    0.5"

    Rich" Poor"

    Easy"(cheap)"

    Hard" (Expensive)"

    RAVEN’S MATRICES

    High Income High Income Low Income Low Income

    $300

    $3,000

    $300

    $3,000

    Mani, A., Mullainathan, S., Shafir, E., Zhao, J. (2013) Poverty Impedes Cognitive Function, Science, 341 (6149), 976-980.

  • © 2017 ideas42 32

    POVERTY ≠ PERSONAL FAILING

    POVERTY ≠ CULTURAL PATHOLOGY

    POVERTY = CHRONIC SCARCITY

  • © 2017 ideas42 33

    AGENDA

    •  What is ideas42 and behavioral science? •  The influence of context •  Application to public benefits programs •  Recommendations for WIC •  Q&A

  • © 2017 ideas42 34

    POVERTY INTERRUPTED

  • © 2017 ideas42 35

    HOW TO CHANGE THE CONTEXT OF SCARCITY

    3 design principals and

    15 recommendations for reducing the bandwidth

    tax and addressing the context of poverty

  • © 2017 ideas42 36

    DESIGN PRINCIPAL 1: CUT THE COSTS

    Cut the costs

    The high costs of poverty

    P overty is expensive, in more ways than one. Families with low incomes

    face significant financial, temporal, and cognitive costs on a daily basis.

    Providing families additional resources can help (see “Create slack” below), but

    individuals and organizations serving people in poverty should first focus on

    reducing the costs they themselves impose.

    Poverty Interrupted: Applying Behavioral Science to the Context of Chronic Scarcity | 17i d e a s 4 2

    Design Principles: Cut the costs

  • © 2017 ideas42 37

    A BENEFITS COMMON APP

    OR

  • © 2017 ideas42 38

    DESIGN PRINCIPAL 2: CREATE SLACK

    VS.

  • © 2017 ideas42 39

    VALUE TIME AS MONEY

  • © 2017 ideas42 40

    DESIGN PRINCIPAL 3: REFRAME AND EMPOWER

    Poverty Interrupted: Applying Behavioral Science to the Context of Chronic Scarcity | 39i d e a s 4 2

    Reframe and empower

    The toxic environment of poverty

    T hus far, we’ve focused on ways to reduce the complexities, hassles,

    and lack of slack that drive up the bandwidth tax for families with

    limited incomes. Poverty also affects individuals and families in a way that

    is less visible, and perhaps more insidious: by shaping their understanding

    of who they are, where they fit in society, and what’s possible for their

    future. These perceptions in turn shape decisions and actions, often in

    negative ways. To improve outcomes for families

    with low incomes, we must work to

    de-stigmatize services and ben-

    efits, promote more constructive

    interpersonal interactions,

    and put decision making

    back in the hands

    of families.

    Poverty Interrupted: Applying Behavioral Science to the Context of Chronic Scarcity | 39i d e a s 4 2

    Design Principles: Reframe and empower

  • © 2017 ideas42 41

    USE INTENTIONAL LANGUAGE

  • © 2017 ideas42 42

    SNAP

  • © 2017 ideas42 43

    DEFINE

    DIAGNOSE

    DESIGN

    TEST

    32% of SNAP recipients lose benefits for failing to submit recertification forms or complete phone interviews

    Ambiguous process, many small hassles, easy to forget, underestimation of time required for tasks

    Clarify action steps, icons to visually communicate required steps, frame in terms of losses, call for immediate action

    Randomized controlled trial on 22,000 SNAP recipients up for recertification. Final results anticipated by summer 2017

    INCREASING SNAP RECERTIFICATION Design Principal 1: Cut the Costs

  • © 2017 ideas42 44

    Original Letter Behavioral Letter

    Clear action steps