Becoming Physically Fit

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  • 1. Chapter Four:Becoming Physically Fit

2. Basic Concepts

  • Physical fitness
    • A set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity
  • Physical activity
    • Any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure
  • Exercise (subset of physical activity)
    • Planned, structured, and repetitive activity designed to improve or maintain physical fitness

3. Four Components of Physical Fitness

  • Cardiorespiratory endurance
    • Aerobic vs. anaerobic exercise
  • Muscular fitness
    • Strength vs. endurance
  • Flexibility
  • Body composition

4. Cardiorespiratory Endurance

  • Ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to process and transport oxygen over a period of time
  • Produced by exercise involving continuous, repetitive movements
    • Examples: brisk walking, jogging, cycling
  • Aerobic(with oxygen) energy production
  • Structural and functional benefits

5. Muscular Fitness

  • Strength :Ability to contract skeletal muscles to a maximal level
  • Endurance :Ability to contract skeletal muscles repeatedly over a long period of time
  • Improved by performing repeated contractions at less than maximal levels

6. Flexibility and Body Composition

  • Flexibility :Ability of your joints to move through an intended range of motion
  • Body composition:The make-up of the body in terms of muscle, bone, fat, water, and minerals
    • Fitness experts are most concerned with percentages of body fat and fat-free weight

7. Developing a Personalized Fitness Program: Key Principles

  • Overload : Placing increasing amounts of stress or resistance on the body causes changes that improve fitness
  • Specificity : The type of exercise must be specific to the outcome that is targeted for improvement
  • Reversibility(regression): Use it or lose it

8. Cardiorespiratory Endurance Training Factors

  • Mode
  • Frequency
  • Intensity
  • Duration

9. Developing a Cardiorespiratory Endurance Program

  • Mode of activity
    • Continuous activity
    • Using large muscle groups
    • Aerobic in nature
    • Enjoyable
    • Cross-train and/or vary activities to maintain motivation

10. Developing a Cardiorespiratory Program

  • Frequency(How often should I train?)
    • 3-5 times/week
    • More than 5 times/week will not create further improvement
    • Less than 3 times/week will not show significant improvement

11. Developing a Cardiorespiratory Program

  • Intensity(How hard should I train?)
    • Target heart rate (THR) = Between 65% and 90% of maximum heart rate
    • Maximum heart rate can be estimated by subtracting your age from 220
  • Target heart rate range = (220 age) x 65-90%
    • Sample calculation for a 20-year-old:
        • 220 - 20 = 200 x 0.65 = 130 bpm
        • 220 - 20 = 200 x 0.90 = 180 bpm

12. Developing a Cardiorespiratory Program

  • Duration
    • ACSM recommends 20-60 minutes of continuous activity
    • The lower the intensity, the longer the duration should be

13. Muscular Fitness

  • Types of Muscular Fitness Exercises
  • Isometric(same length): Muscle contraction without movement
  • Isotonic(same tension): Muscle contraction with movement against a specific fixed resistance throughout the full range of motion
  • Isokinetic(same motion): Muscle contraction with movement against variable resistance through the full range of motion at a fixed speed

14. Muscular Fitness: Equipment 15. Muscular Fitness

  • Frequency: 2 times/week
  • One set of 8-12 repetitions (10-15 repetitions for adults over 50) of 8-10 exercises
    • Multiple sets could provide greater benefits
  • Sufficient resistance to fatigue major muscle groups (legs, arms, shoulders, chest, back)
  • Training recommendations
    • Isotonic or isokinetic exercises
    • Full range of motion at a slow to moderate speed using rhythmic breathing

16. Major Muscle Groups 17. Flexibility

  • Failure to maintain flexibility can result in reduced range of motion and injury
  • Two forms of stretching motions:
    • Static stretching:Slow lengthening of a muscle group to an extended stretch, followed by a hold of the extended position for 10-30 seconds
      • Recommended
    • Ballistic stretching:A bouncing form of stretching in which a muscle group is lengthened repetitively to produce multiple quick, forceful stretches

18. Flexibility Training

  • Stretch all major muscle groups
  • 2-3 times/week
  • Should be done following a warm-up
  • Static stretching is preferred over ballistic stretching
  • Hold each stretch for 10-30 seconds

19. Body Composition

  • Measurement of percent body fat is often included in a fitness program
  • To reduce body fat, an exercise program should maximize caloric expenditure
    • ACSM recommends exercise sessions expending 300-400 calories

20. The Workout Routine

  • Warm-up (5-10 minutes of slow, gradual, comfortable movements related to the upcoming activity; can end with a period of stretching)
  • Conditioning (cardiorespiratory endurance, strength training, and/or flexibility workout following ACSM guidelines)
  • Cooldown (5-10 minutes of relaxing exercises to return the body to a resting state)

21. Exercise and Aging

  • Change is gradual
  • Individual differences occur
  • Greatest change is noted in areas of complex function
  • Homeostatic decline occurs with age
  • Stay physically active to slow physical decline

22. Changes in Older Adults

  • Decrease in bone mass and changes in bone structure
  • Decrease in muscle bulk and strength
  • Decrease in cardiorespiratory endurance
  • Loss of nerve cells
  • Decrease hearing and vision abilities
  • Decrease in sensory modalities
  • Slower reaction time
  • Gait and postural changes

23. Exercise for Older Adults

  • Exercises for younger adults may be inappropriate for people over aged 50
  • Supervision from a certified instructor may be necessary
  • Physical exams are recommended before beginning a program
  • Well-designed programs should start slowly
  • Recognize signs of distress

24. Special Health Concerns

  • Low-back pain
    • Affects 4 out of 5 adults at least once in their lifetimes
    • Mechanical (postural) problems tend to be the main culprit
    • Regular physical activity greatly reduces the occurrences of low-back pain

25. Special Health Concerns

  • Osteoporosis
    • Decreased bone mass; may lead to fractures
    • 80% of suffers are women
    • Lower level of estrogen may decrease calcium absorption
    • Adequate calcium and vitamin D intake; weight bearing exercise
  • Osteoarthritis
    • Joint inflammation
    • Common in older adults
    • Often occurs in weight-bearing joints
    • Genetic predisposition is also a key factor
    • Regular physical activity may reduce the risk for osteoarthritis

26. Training Recommendations

  • Drink enough fluid before, during, and after activity
  • Wear comfortable clothing that promotes temperature regulation
  • Use appropriate safety equipment

27. Effects of Steroids 28. Exercise Injuries: Strategies for Prevention and Care

  • Start at a low level and progress gradually
  • If you stop ex