Bc Surabhi Prakash

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    INTRODUCTION

    Growing needs of mankind-RapidDevelopment.

    Rapid advancement in computertechnology will lose its momentum whensilicon chip reaches its full capacity &miniaturization.

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    Solving complex problems which today's

    supercomputers are unable to perform instipulated period of time

    WHAT COULD BE A REMEDY TOTHIS CONCERN?????

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    Answer to this question is :

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    CONTENTS

    WHAT IS BIOLOGICAL COMPUTER ?

    COMPONENTS

    CONCEPT OF BIOLOGICAL COMPUTER

    APPLICATIONS

    HOW IT WORKS ?

    CONVENTIONAL VS. BIOLOGICAL COMPUTERS

    ADVANTAGES

    LIMITATIONS

    THE FUTURE

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    What is Biological Computer?

    Biological Computers arecomputers which use synthesized

    biological components to store andmanipulate data analogous toprocesses in the human body.

    The result is small yet fastercomputer that operates with greataccuracy.

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    ABIOLOGICALCOMPUTER

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    COMPONENTS

    Main biological component used in a

    Biological Computer is :

    RNA DNA Protiens

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    RNA :

    Ribonucleic Acid an importantpart in the synthesis of protein

    from amino acids,

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    DNA:Deoxyribonucleic Acid -

    nucleic acid molecule thatcontains the important

    genetic information that is

    used by the body for theconstruction of cells; it's the

    blue print for all living

    organisms

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    Ahereditary material foundin almost all livingorganisms.

    Located inside the nucleus ofa cell.

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    Helps in long termstorage ofinformation.

    Information in DNA isstored as a

    code made of fourchemical bases(ATG&C).

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    How BiologicalComputers Are

    Introduced?????

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    Combinations OfDNA Strand

    Formation Of

    DNAStrands

    Precipitation

    Of DNA

    Spooling Of

    DNA With Metal

    Hook Or Similar

    Device

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    APPLICATIONS

    Can be a general purpose tool for a varietyof problems.

    Many possible applications:

    Pattern recognition

    Cryptography

    Evaluating gene sequence

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    Medical Application: developing

    disease treatments such as cancer.

    Taiwan introduced the world's first

    DNAauthentication chip & was used

    for national identification cards inorder to crack down on frauds using

    fake ID cards

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    Selective cell treatment is made

    possible.

    The biological computer can also

    perform simple mathematical

    calculations.

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    It is especially useful in monitoring

    intercellular activity including mutation

    of genes.

    Biological machines can be implanted or

    even built within a patient's

    own cells that will act as biosensors,

    watching out for diseasemarkers.

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    HOWIT WORKS ??

    Biological computers are made inside a

    patient's body. The researchers or

    doctors merely provide the patient's

    body with all of the necessary

    information or a "blueprint" along

    which lines the biological computerwould be "manufactured.

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    " Once the "computer's" genetic blueprint

    has been provided, the human body will

    start to build it on its own using the

    body's natural biological processes and

    the cells found in the body.

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    As of today, reading signals produced by

    cell activity is not yet possible due to

    technological limitations. However,

    through the use of a tiny implantable

    biological computer, these cellular signals

    could easily be detected, translated and

    understood using existing medicaland laboratory equipment.

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    HOW ITWORKSWITH

    CONVENTIONALCOMPUTERS??

    As with conventional computers, the

    biological computer also works with

    an output and an input signal. The main

    inputs of the biological computer are the

    body's proteins, RNA, and other specific

    chemicals that are found in the human

    cytoplasm. The output on the other handcould be detected using laboratoryequipment.

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    CONVENTIONAL VS. BIOLOGICAL

    COMPUTERS

    Properties CONVENTIONALCOMPUTERS

    BIOLOGICAL COMPUTERS

    Component

    Material

    Inorganic e.g. SILICON Biological e.g. DNA

    Processing Skill Sequential & limitedmassively parallel.

    Massively parallel.

    Current Max.

    Operation

    10 to the power(12)

    ops/sec.

    10 to the power (14)

    ops / sec.

    Quantum Effects aProblem ?

    Yes No

    Toxic Components ? Yes No

    Energy Efficient ? No Yes

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    ADVANTAGES

    Parallel Computing- Biologicalcomputers are massively parallel.

    Incredibly light weight- With only 1 LBofDNAhave more computing powerthan all the computers ever made.

    Low power- The only power needed is tokeep DNA from denaturing.

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    Solves Complex Problems quickly- ADNA

    computer can solve hardest of problems in

    a matter of weeks

    Perform millions of operations

    simultaneously.

    Generate a complete set of potential

    solutions.

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    Cheap, clean, readily available

    materials.

    Amazing ability to store information

    Efficiently handle massive amounts ofworking memory.

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    This not only makes the healing process

    easier. It also allows the doctors to focus

    only on the damaged, diseased or

    cancerous cells found in the patient's

    body without causing stress to other

    healthy and normal cells.

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    LIMITATIONS

    Error: Molecular operations are notperfect.

    Efficiency: How many moleculescontribute?

    Encoding problem in molecules is

    difficult

    DNAcomputing involves a relativelylarge amount of error.

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    As size of problem grows, probability of

    receiving incorrect answer eventually

    becomes greater than probability of

    receiving correct answer

    Reliability- There is sometime errors in

    the pairing ofDNAstrands.

    DNA in vitro decays through time, so

    lab procedures should not take too long.

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    THE FUTURE

    Algorithm used by Adleman for the

    traveling salesman problem was simple.

    As technology becomes more refined,

    more efficient algorithms may bediscovered.

    DNA

    Manipulation technology hasrapidly improved in recent years, and

    future advances may make DNA

    computers more efficient.

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    The University ofWisconsin is

    experimenting with chip-based DNA

    computers.

    Currently researchers at Harvard

    University and Princeton University are

    working on developing biologicalcomputers.

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    Biological computer born

    Living computer:

    interconnected leech

    neurons can add up

    Acomputer made of

    neurons taken from

    leeches has been

    created by USscientists

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    THANK YOU!!!

    It will take years to develop a practical,

    workable Biological Computer.

    ButLets all hope that this DREAM comes

    true!!!