Baroque music period
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General Ideas about Baroque PeriodThe word Baroque comes from Portuguese and means irregular , abnormal . It was a word that belonged to the jargon of jewelry ; a baroque pearl was a non-spherical pearl.
The Baroque is developed from the seventeenth century to the first half of the eighteenth century. It begins with the premiere of Monteverdi's Orfeo ( 1607 ) opera.It ends with the death of Bach (1685-1750 ) .
THE SOCIETY in this period.
1. Continuous wars in Europe. Religious Wars : Catholics and Protestants.
2. The states are organized as Absolute monarchies .
3. Mercantilism in the economy develops. ( Economic doctrine developed after the discovery of America in gold and silver mines , according to which the precious metals are the main wealth of the country . 4. Great artistic flowering : Painting and sculpture : Rubens , Velazquez , Rembrandt . Science and thinking : Newton, Descartes. Literature: Quevedo , Gongora, Calderon.
5. The music served to showcase the splendor of the absolute monarchy and the church . Opera was born .
Musicians LiveThey worked for patrons who kept them in exchange for his musical services. Vivaldi : Female Orphanage .
Bach : Churches in cities where he lived .
They learned their art and their craft with family or next of great masters.
Baroque composers used the musical ideas of his contemporaries, to compose his own works , which today is called plagiarism .
HOW WAS THE BAROQUE MUSIC . It was a very ornate melodic and polyphonic music Breaking the Renaissance style , which favored the emergence of new genres ( oratorio, cantata , opera ) and new musical forms ( sonata , concert ) . BAROQUE MUSIC STYLES . Ecclesiastical : Religious Music . Chamber music : Music for the court and nobility. Theatre : Opera .
NATIONAL BAROQUE STYLE .Within the Baroque born own national styles of each country. Italian: concertante style. Instrumental music ( concertos, sonatas ) and vocal . French : colorful and very rigid in the music discipline. Many ornamentation ( overture, suite). German: A mixture of the two previous styles . Contrapuntal .
Thorough-BassOrganization of music with Thorough-Bass: Melody. This section generally melodic instruments like the violin , trumpet, flute or oboe are responsible . Harmonic filling. This section instruments like the viola are responsible . Basso Continuo . This section generally polyphonic instruments like the harpsichord, guitar and harp, with strings of serious tessitura are responsible . From the harmonic base provided by the continuo improvisation it arises ( inventing a melody). Improvising from baroque disappeared centuries later appeared with jazz or rock.
THE RHYTHM OF THE BAROQUE At this time there are 2 types of rhythms that are apparent in the operas . Free Rhythm. Also called " Recitative " . It seems to be an invented melody. It has little instrumental accompaniment . Metric Rhythm . This rate appears in arias , concerts and dances. In many cases several voices written with much instrumental accompaniment
Compositional principles Baroque composers could use to make their compositions: Fugue Style: the same melody goes through various instruments imitation mode .
Variations Style: compose variations is to maintain the original structure of the main melody Call topic , ranging But the rhythm, dynamics or the instruments of interpreting .
Character improvised pieces : Based on a composite harmonic by the composer, freedom is left to interpret for a melody and improvise invented very ornate .
The Baroque dances
Development of the ballet : Ballet de Cour.The ballet has evolved into the French court where he had emerged and introducing professional dancers who replaced gradually courtiers. The Ballet de Cour was created under the reign of Louis XIV danced and was a play that began with an instrumental overture and ended with a great ballet in which the king himself participated . In between a series of scenes that mixed the song and dance performed by professionals they unfolded
Dance in societyDuring the Baroque , most of the compositions of instrumental music still go to the dance.Some dances of the Renaissance are preserved but will be new :Allemanda : German origin. Dance calm in binary rhythm.Courante : its name derives from the French ( courant - Running ) . quick dance in ternary rhythm .
These two were the most used and common.
Other dances popular in the Baroque :Bourre : Dance French , quick round and binary rhythm .Chaconne : Dance sung of Spanish origin, ternary and slow pace.Zarabanda : solemn dance of Spanish origin, ternary and slow pace.Jig. English quick dance in 6/8 origin .
THE INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC OF THE BAROQUE .
Characteristics of Baroque instrumental music :
Mayor importance of instrumental music, not necessarily accompanying the singing.Instruments are perfect to meet the musical needs and practices of the instrumentalists .The interpreter will be specializing in your instrument , giving rise to the first "virtuous " .Born orchestra.Born specific musical forms of the time: the Suite , the Fugue, Sonata and Concerto .
The Baroque Orchestra
The baroque orchestra will as a fundamental basis the bowed strings and basso continuo , usually played by ClavecinThis instrumental training shows and all the instrumental families : Strings, Percussion, metal wind and wind wood
Baroque instrumental formsThe Fugue .It is a simple , single movement contrapuntal texture based on imitation .It will be one of the most important ways for keyboard instruments , especially for the organ.
The SuiteThis Baroque suite , which has its origins in Renaissance dance music , instrumental form is a complex composed of a succession of dances from different character and in varying numbers . The most common structure is :Allemanda :Binary- slow tempo .Courante :Ternary fast tempo.Saraband:Ternary slow tempo.Jig:Ternary- fast tempo.
The SonataThe term means " music to sound " performed by instruments. It is a complex form divided into four contrasting movements . Alternating slow and fast movements : slow -fast-slow-fastIt can be composed for a solo instrument , a duo or a trio , but always be accompanied by the key as basso continuo(Thorough-Bass)
The concertThe concert is a complex shape composed of a succession of three contrasting movements. Fast-slow- fastAt this time there are two types of concert:Concerto Grosso : The soloists are within the orchestra are called " concertinos " the rest of the orchestra will be the " tutti" .Concerto with soloist (only one) : one composed for solo one instrument that communicates with the orchestra.
THE BAROQUE VOCAL MUSIC
THE OPERA. Characteristics:The opera was born in Florence in the circle of Count Bardi ( Camerata Fiorentina) , from Renaissance madrigals .The first preserved opera is Euridice of Jacopo Peri , which was followed by another of the same title composed by Giulio Caccini . But it is considered the first great opera of the story is Monteverdi 's Orfeo , released in 1607 .It was the first genre that opened to the public in general.It combines music , dance and acting .Highlight two timbres of voices, the tenor and soprano .It consists of several acts or parts.
Sections of the Opera.Overture : instrumental only gives begins to work.
Aria: A character sings a text that expresses emotions or thoughts , equivalent to a modern song . He has orchestral accompaniment .
Recitative : Part declaimed with accompanying basso continuo (harpsichord) .
Duets, trios , quartets : musical section in which several characters sing .Intermezzo : instrumental section between acts .
Types of opera : Serious Opera:
Arguments based on : mythological themes and HeroicosWritten in Italian. Preferred gener of the aristocracy.The music is specially write for the castrati.
Bufa Opera :
They use the arguments from the daily lives of the people who propose critiques of the characters upper class. Language of each country. Replaces recitatives for dialogue.
RELIGIOUS VOCAL MUSIC . This music is used for religious ceremonies of the Catholic and Protestant church. Religious music is more conservative . Still using the Gregorian chant of the Middle Ages and Renaissance polyphony
Religious Baroque genres : Oratorio : dramatic and sacred composition in several movements . Has a biblical passage.Coral : German anthem , sung in unison by the congregation ( religious Lutheran Mass) .Cantata : oratorio by free composition . The argument is based on Psalms and the Gospels.Passion Oratorio that has the passion and death of Jesus Christ alone. also it consists of several movements .