BAROQUE MUSIC Baroque DATES: DATES: BAROQUE: BAROQUE: The Baroque period stretches roughly from 1600 to 1750 (coincides with the death of J.S. Bach.)

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  • Slide 1
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  • BAROQUE MUSIC
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  • Baroque DATES: DATES: BAROQUE: BAROQUE: The Baroque period stretches roughly from 1600 to 1750 (coincides with the death of J.S. Bach.) From the Portuguese word barroco meaning an ornamented piece of jewellery. First used to describe the highly decorative style of architecture at the time.
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  • Fingerprints of musical style Early Baroque composers favour a light, homophonic musical texture melody plus simple chordal accompaniment; but before long, there is a return to polyphonic (contrapuntal) textures. Early Baroque composers favour a light, homophonic musical texture melody plus simple chordal accompaniment; but before long, there is a return to polyphonic (contrapuntal) textures. The basso continuo, or figured bass, becomes the musical foundation for most types of piece providing a purposeful bass-line (sometimes a walking bass) making the music move steadily onwards. The basso continuo, or figured bass, becomes the musical foundation for most types of piece providing a purposeful bass-line (sometimes a walking bass) making the music move steadily onwards. The same musical mood is usually kept throughout an entire piece. The same musical mood is usually kept throughout an entire piece. The violin family takes over from the viols; the orchestra begins to take shape, with the string section as a firm basis always with keyboard continuo (harpsichord or organ) filling out the harmonies above the figured bass and decorating the musical texture. The violin family takes over from the viols; the orchestra begins to take shape, with the string section as a firm basis always with keyboard continuo (harpsichord or organ) filling out the harmonies above the figured bass and decorating the musical texture.
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  • Fingerprints 2 The system of modes falls out of use by the end of the 17 th century; music is now based on major and minor scales. The system of modes falls out of use by the end of the 17 th century; music is now based on major and minor scales. Typical forms used by Baroque composers: binary, ternary (including the da capo aria), rondeau, variations (including the ground bass, chaconne, passacaglia), ritornello form, fugue. Typical forms used by Baroque composers: binary, ternary (including the da capo aria), rondeau, variations (including the ground bass, chaconne, passacaglia), ritornello form, fugue. Main types of Baroque music: Main types of Baroque music: vocal chorale, recitative and aria, opera, oratorio, cantata; vocal chorale, recitative and aria, opera, oratorio, cantata; instrumental Italian overture, French overture, toccata, prelude, chorale prelude, dance suite, trio sonatas (sonata da camera, sonata da chiesa), concerto grosso, solo concerto. instrumental Italian overture, French overture, toccata, prelude, chorale prelude, dance suite, trio sonatas (sonata da camera, sonata da chiesa), concerto grosso, solo concerto. Often, energetic rhythms drive the music forward: melodies are frequently long and flowing, and decorated with ornaments (eg appoggiaturas, trills); contrasts (particularly in concertos), of instrumental timbres, of few instruments against many, of loud contrasted against soft (terraced dynamics, sometimes echo effects), and blocks of sound of different timbres (eg strings and wind alternately, then together). Often, energetic rhythms drive the music forward: melodies are frequently long and flowing, and decorated with ornaments (eg appoggiaturas, trills); contrasts (particularly in concertos), of instrumental timbres, of few instruments against many, of loud contrasted against soft (terraced dynamics, sometimes echo effects), and blocks of sound of different timbres (eg strings and wind alternately, then together).
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  • Instruments-Harpsichord A harpsichord is the general term for a family of European keyboard instruments, including the large instrument nowadays called a harpsichord, but also the smaller virginals and the spinet. A harpsichord is the general term for a family of European keyboard instruments, including the large instrument nowadays called a harpsichord, but also the smaller virginals and the spinet. keyboardinstruments keyboardinstruments All these instruments generate sound by plucking a string rather than striking one, as in a piano or clavichord. The harpsichord family is thought to have originated when a keyboard was affixed to the end of a psaltery, providing a mechanical means to pluck the strings. All these instruments generate sound by plucking a string rather than striking one, as in a piano or clavichord. The harpsichord family is thought to have originated when a keyboard was affixed to the end of a psaltery, providing a mechanical means to pluck the strings.soundstringpianoclavichordpsalterysoundstringpianoclavichordpsaltery
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  • Baroque Orchestra Typical features include: Typical features include: Strings to which composers would add 1 or 2 flutes (or recorders), oboes, bassoons, perhaps horns, occasionally trumpets and kettle drums. Strings to which composers would add 1 or 2 flutes (or recorders), oboes, bassoons, perhaps horns, occasionally trumpets and kettle drums. Organ or harpsichord continuo to build up chords on a bass line (figured bass), Organ or harpsichord continuo to build up chords on a bass line (figured bass), Effects of contrast- dynamics and textures. Effects of contrast- dynamics and textures. Ribbons of sound- oboes and trumpets against strings, or Ribbons of sound- oboes and trumpets against strings, or Blocks of sound- contrasting groups- strings then wind then tutti (all) resulting in terraced dynamics rather than crescendo or diminuendo. Blocks of sound- contrasting groups- strings then wind then tutti (all) resulting in terraced dynamics rather than crescendo or diminuendo.
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  • Baroque Orchestra The Baroque Orchestra is the earliest example of a true orchestra which came into existence in the mid-late 1600s. Its origins were in France where Jean-Baptiste Lully added oboes (hautboys) and transverse flutes to his vingt- quatre violons du Roy. As well as violins and woodwind, the baroque orchestra would have still contained continuo instruments such as the harpsichord or theorbo (lute). The new-fangled instrumentation and orchestration soon spread to the rest of Europe and soon became the standard solo instrumental grouping. The Baroque Orchestra is the earliest example of a true orchestra which came into existence in the mid-late 1600s. Its origins were in France where Jean-Baptiste Lully added oboes (hautboys) and transverse flutes to his vingt- quatre violons du Roy. As well as violins and woodwind, the baroque orchestra would have still contained continuo instruments such as the harpsichord or theorbo (lute). The new-fangled instrumentation and orchestration soon spread to the rest of Europe and soon became the standard solo instrumental grouping.orchestraFranceJean-Baptiste Lullyflutesvingt- quatre violons du Roy harpsichordorchestraFranceJean-Baptiste Lullyflutesvingt- quatre violons du Roy harpsichord
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  • Typical forms used by Baroque composers Binary (AB) Binary (AB) Ternary (including the da capo aria) (ABA) Ternary (including the da capo aria) (ABA) Rondo (ABACADA) Rondo (ABACADA) Variations (including the ground bass, chaconne, passacaglia) Variations (including the ground bass, chaconne, passacaglia) Ritornello form Ritornello form Fugue Fugue
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  • Main types of Baroque music VOCAL OPERA, ORATORIO, chorale, recitative and aria, cantata; VOCAL OPERA, ORATORIO, chorale, recitative and aria, cantata; CONCERTO GROSSO, SOLO CONCERTO, FUGUE, Italian overture, French overture, toccata, prelude, chorale prelude, dance suite, trio sonatas (sonata da camera, sonata da chiesa), INSTRUMENTAL CONCERTO GROSSO, SOLO CONCERTO, FUGUE, Italian overture, French overture, toccata, prelude, chorale prelude, dance suite, trio sonatas (sonata da camera, sonata da chiesa),
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  • OPERA Opera refers to a dramatic art form, originating in Italy, in which the emotional content or primary entertainment is conveyed to the audience as much through music, both vocal and instrumental, as it is through the lyrics. From the beginning of the form (about 1600), there has been contention whether the music is paramount, or the words Opera refers to a dramatic art form, originating in Italy, in which the emotional content or primary entertainment is conveyed to the audience as much through music, both vocal and instrumental, as it is through the lyrics. From the beginning of the form (about 1600), there has been contention whether the music is paramount, or the wordsdramaticartItaly1600dramaticartItaly1600 The drama is presented using the primary elements of theatre such as scenery, costumes, and acting. However, the words of the opera, or libretto, are customarily sung rather than spoken. The singers are accompanied by a musical ensemble ranging from a small instrumental ensemble to a full symphonic orchestra. The drama is presented using the primary elements of theatre such as scenery, costumes, and acting. However, the words of the opera, or libretto, are customarily sung rather than spoken. The singers are accompanied by a musical ensemble ranging from a small instrumental ensemble to a full symphonic orchestra. theatrecostumesactinglibrettosungsingers musical ensembleorchestra theatrecostumesactinglibrettosungsingers musical ensembleorchestra
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  • ORATORIO An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. It differs from an opera in that it does not have scenery, costumes, or acting. Oratorio closely mirrored opera in all ages in musical style and form, except that choruses were more prominent in oratorio than in opera. The peak period for composition of oratorios was the 17th and 18th centuries. An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. It differs from an opera in that it does not have scenery, costumes, or acting. Oratorio closely mirrored opera in all ages in musical style and form, except that choruses were more prominent in oratorio than in opera. The peak period for composition of oratorios was the 17th and 18th centuries.musical composition orchestrasoloistschorus operascenerycostumesmusical composition orchestrasoloistschorus operascenerycostumes Most oratorios from the common practice period to the present day have biblical themes, but a number of composers, notably George Frideric Handel, wrote secular oratorios based on themes from Greek and Roman mythology. Whether religious or secular, the theme of an oratorio is meant to be weighty, and can include such topics as the creation of the world, the life of Jesus, or the career of a classical hero or biblical prophet. Most oratorios from the common practice period to the present day have biblical themes, but a number of composers, notably George Frideric Handel, wrote secular oratorios based on themes from Greek and Roman mythology. Whether religious or secular, the theme of an oratorio is meant to be weighty, and can include such topics as the creation of the world, the life of Jesus, or the career of a classical hero or biblical prophet.biblicalGeorge Frideric HandelGreek RomanmythologyJesusbiblicalGeorge Frideric HandelGreek RomanmythologyJesus
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  • CONCERTO GROSSO The concerto grosso (plural concerti grossi) (Italian for big concert) was a popular form of baroque music using an ensemble and usually having four to six movements in which the musical material is passed between a small group of soloists (the concertino- little ensemble) and full orchestra (the ripieno- filling). The concerto grosso (plural concerti grossi) (Italian for big concert) was a popular form of baroque music using an ensemble and usually having four to six movements in which the musical material is passed between a small group of soloists (the concertino- little ensemble) and full orchestra (the ripieno- filling).pluralItalianbaroque musicensembleconcertinoripienopluralItalianbaroque musicensembleconcertinoripieno Other major composers of concerti grossi were Georg Friedrich Hndel, who expanded the ripieno to include wind instruments. Several of the Brandenburg Concerti of Johann Sebastian Bach also loosely follow the concerto grosso form, notably the 2nd Concerto, which has a concertino of recorder, oboe, trumpet, and solo violin. Other major composers of concerti grossi were Georg Friedrich Hndel, who expanded the ripieno to include wind instruments. Several of the Brandenburg Concerti of Johann Sebastian Bach also loosely follow the concerto grosso form, notably the 2nd Concerto, which has a concertino of recorder, oboe, trumpet, and solo violin.Georg Friedrich HndelBrandenburg ConcertiJohann Sebastian BachGeorg Friedrich HndelBrandenburg ConcertiJohann Sebastian Bach
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  • SOLO CONCERTO In classical music, the word concerto (pl. concerti or concertos; from the Italian concerto, which means concert) is a label for a piece in which a small musical group and a large musical group are given distinct roles, with the smaller group to the fore. In classical music, the word concerto (pl. concerti or concertos; from the Italian concerto, which means concert) is a label for a piece in which a small musical group and a large musical group are given distinct roles, with the smaller group to the fore.classical musicItalianclassical musicItalian The most common kind of concerto pairs a solo instrument with a full orchestra. The term also implies the musical form of a piece, as most pieces called "concerto" have three movements, of which the first is typically in sonata form and the last typically a rondo. The most common kind of concerto pairs a solo instrument with a full orchestra. The term also implies the musical form of a piece, as most pieces called "concerto" have three movements, of which the first is typically in sonata form and the last typically a rondo.soloorchestramusical formmovementssonata formrondosoloorchestramusical formmovementssonata formrondo The term apparently arose in the beginning of the 17th century, and came to describe chiefly compositions which bring unequal instrumental or vocal forces into opposition. The term apparently arose in the beginning of the 17th century, and came to describe chiefly compositions which bring unequal instrumental or vocal forces into opposition.
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  • Ritornello form In both types of concerto, movements are built up in ritornello form. In both types of concerto, movements are built up in ritornello form. The music starts off with the ritornello (little return) played by the ripien...